【数据结构】30_双向链表的实现

c/c++

浏览数:105

2020-6-15

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单链表的另一个缺陷

  • 单向性

    • 只能从头结点开始高效访问链表中的数据元素
  • 缺陷

    • 如果需要逆序访问单链表中的数据元素将及其低效
int main()
{
    LinkList<int> i;
    
    for (int i=0; i<5; ++i)  // O(n)
    {
        l.insert(0, i);
    }
    
    for (int i=length()-1; i>=0; --i)
    {
        cout << l.get(i) << endl;
    }
    
    return 0;
}

双向链表

设计思路

在 “单链表” 的结点中增加一个指针 pre,用于指向当前结点的前驱结点。

双向链表的继承层次结构

LinkList 的定义

template <typename T>
class DualLinkList : public List<T>
{
protected:
    struct Node : public Object
    {
        T value;
        Node *next;
        Node *pte;
    };
    
    mutable struct : public Object
    {
        char reserved[sizeof(T)];
        Node *next;
        Node *pre;
    }m_header;
};

编程实验:双向链表的实现

文件:DualLinkList.h

#ifndef DUALLINKLIST_H
#define DUALLINKLIST_H

#include "List.h"
#include "Exception.h"

namespace DTLib
{

template <typename T>
class DualLinkList : public List<T>
{
public:
    DualLinkList()
    {
        m_header.next = nullptr;
        m_header.pre  = nullptr;
        m_length      = 0;
        m_step        = 1;
        m_current     = nullptr;
    }

    bool insert(const T &e) override  // O(n)
    {
        return insert(m_length, e);
    }

    bool insert(int i, const T &e) override  // O(n)
    {
        bool ret = ((0 <= i) && (i <= m_length));

        if (ret)
        {
            Node *node = create();

            if (node != nullptr)
            {
                Node *current = position(i);
                Node *next = current->next;

                node->value = e;
                node->next = next;
                current->next = node;

                if (current != reinterpret_cast<Node*>(&m_header))
                {
                    node->pre = current;
                }
                else
                {
                    node->pre = nullptr;
                }

                if (next != nullptr)
                {
                    next->pre = node;
                }

                ++m_length;
            }
            else
            {
                THROW_EXCEPTION(NoEnoughMemoryException, "No memory to insert new element ...");
            }
        }

        return ret;
    }

    bool remove(int i) override  // O(n)
    {
        bool ret = ((0 <= i) && (i < m_length));

        if (ret)
        {
            Node *current = position(i);
            Node *toDel = current->next;
            Node *next = toDel->next;

            if (m_current == toDel)
            {
                m_current = toDel->next;
            }

            current->next = toDel->next;

            if (next != nullptr)
            {
                next->pre = current;
            }

            --m_length;

            destroy(toDel);
        }

        return ret;
    }

    bool set(int i, const T &e) override  // O(n)
    {
        bool ret = ((0 <= i) && (i < m_length));

        if (ret)
        {
            position(i)->next->value = e;
        }

        return ret;
    }

    virtual T get(int i) const  // O(n)
    {
        T ret;

        if (!get(i, ret))
        {
            THROW_EXCEPTION(IndexOutOfBoundsException, "Invalid parameter i to get element ...");
        }

        return ret;
    }

    bool get(int i, T &e) const override  // O(n)
    {
        bool ret = ((0 <= i) && (i < m_length));

        if (ret)
        {
            e = position(i)->next->value;
        }

        return ret;
    }

    int  find(const T &e) override  // O(n)
    {
        int ret = -1;

        int i = 0;
        Node *node = m_header.next;

        while (node)
        {
            if (node->value == e)
            {
                ret = i;
                break;
            }
            else
            {
                node = node->next;
                ++i;
            }
        }

        return ret;
    }

    int length() const override // O(1)
    {
        return m_length;
    }

    void clear() override // O(n)
    {
        while (m_length > 0)
        {
            remove(0);
        }

        m_current = nullptr;
    }

    virtual bool move(int i, int step = 1)  // O(n)
    {
        bool ret = ((0 <= i) && (i < m_length) && (step > 0));

        if (ret)
        {
            m_current = position(i)->next;
            m_step = step;
        }

        return ret;
    }

    virtual bool end()  // O(1)
    {
        return (m_current == nullptr);
    }

    virtual T current()  // O(1)
    {
        if (!end())
        {
            return m_current->value;
        }
        else
        {
             THROW_EXCEPTION(InvalidOpertionExcetion, " No value at current posotion ...");
        }
    }

    virtual bool next()  // O(n)
    {
        int i = 0;

        while ((i < m_step) && !end())
        {
            m_current = m_current->next;
            ++i;
        }

        return (i == m_step);
    }

    virtual bool pre()
    {
        int i = 0;

        while ((i < m_step) && !end())
        {
            m_current = m_current->pre;
            ++i;
        }

        return (i == m_step);
    }

    ~DualLinkList()  // O(n)
    {
        clear();
    }

protected:
    struct Node : public Object
    {
        T value;
        Node *next;
        Node *pre;
    };

    mutable struct : public Object
    {
        char reserved[sizeof (T)];
        Node *next;
        Node *pre;
    }m_header;

    int m_length;
    int m_step;
    Node *m_current;

    Node *position(int i) const  // O(n)
    {
        Node *ret = reinterpret_cast<Node*>(&m_header);

        for (int p=0; p<i; ++p)
        {
            ret = ret->next;
        }

        return ret;
    }

    virtual Node *create()  // N(1)
    {
        return new Node();
    }

    virtual void destroy(Node *pn)  // N(1)
    {
        delete pn;
    }
};

}

#endif // DUALLINKLIST_H

文件:main.cpp

#include <iostream>
#include "DualLinkList.h"

using namespace std;
using namespace DTLib;


int main()
{
    DualLinkList<int> dl;

    for (int i=0; i<5; ++i)
    {
        dl.insert(0, i);
        dl.insert(0, 5);
    }

    for (int i=0; i<dl.length(); ++i)
    {
        cout << dl.get(i) << endl;
    }

    cout << "--------------" << endl;

    dl.move(dl.length()-1);

    while (!dl.end())
    {
        if (dl.current() == 5)
        {
            cout << dl.current() << endl;
            dl.remove(dl.find(dl.current()));
        }
        else
        {
            dl.pre();
        }
    }

    cout << "--------------" << endl;

    for (dl.move(0); !dl.end(); dl.next())
    {
        cout << dl.current() << endl;
    }

    return 0;
}

输出:

5
4
5
3
5
2
5
1
5
0
--------------
5
5
5
5
5
--------------
4
3
2
1
0

小结

  • 双向链表是为了弥补单链表的缺陷而重新设计的
  • 在概念上,双向链表不是单链表,没有继承关系
  • 双向链表中的游标能够直接访问当前结点的前驱和后继
  • 双向链表是线性表概念的最终实现(更接近理论上的线性表)

以上内容整理于狄泰软件学院系列课程,请大家保护原创!

课后练习

文件:DualStaticLinkList.h

#ifndef DUALSTATICLINKLIST_H
#define DUALSTATICLINKLIST_H

#include "DualLinkList.h"

#include <cstdlib>

namespace  DTLib
{

template <typename T, int N>
class DualStaticLinkList : public DualLinkList<T>
{
public:
    DualStaticLinkList()  // O(n)
    {
        for (int i=0; i<N; ++i)
        {
            m_used[i] = 0;
        }
    }

    int capacity()  // O(1)
    {
        return N;
    }

    ~DualStaticLinkList()  // O(n)
    {
        this->clear();
    }

protected:
    using Node = typename DualLinkList<T>::Node;

    struct SNode : public Node
    {
        void *operator new(unsigned int size, void *loc)  // O(1)
        {
            (void)size;

            return loc;
        }
    };

    unsigned char m_space[sizeof(SNode) * N];
    char m_used[N];

    Node *create()  // O(n)
    {
        SNode *ret = nullptr;

        for (int i=0; i<N; ++i)
        {
            if (m_used[i] == 0)
            {
                ret = reinterpret_cast<SNode*>(m_space) + i;
                ret = new(ret)SNode;
                m_used[i] = 1;
                break;
            }
        }

        return ret;
    }

    void destroy(Node *pn) // O(n)
    {
        SNode *space = reinterpret_cast<SNode*>(m_space);
        SNode *psn = dynamic_cast<SNode*>(pn);

        for (int i=0; i<N; ++i)
        {
            if (psn == (space + i))
            {
                m_used[i] = 0;
                psn->~Node();
                break;
            }
        }
    }
};

}

#endif // DUALSTATICLINKLIST_H

文件:DualCircleList.h

#ifndef DUALCIRCLELIST_H
#define DUALCIRCLELIST_H

#include "DualLinkList.h"

namespace DTLib
{

template <typename T>
class DualCircleList : public DualLinkList<T>
{
public:
    bool insert(const T &e) override  // O(n)
    {
        return insert(this->m_length, e);
    }

    bool insert(int i, const T &e) override  // O(n)
    {
        bool ret = true;
        i = i % (this->m_length + 1);

        ret = DualLinkList<T>::insert(i, e);

        if (ret && (i == 0))
        {
            last_to_first();
        }

        return ret;
    }

    bool remove(int i) override // O(n)
    {
        bool ret = true;
        i = mod(i);

        if (i == 0)
        {
            Node *toDel = this->m_header.next;

            if (toDel != nullptr)
            {
                this->m_header.next = toDel->next;

                --this->m_length;

                if (this->length() > 0)
                {
                    last_to_first();

                    if (this->m_current == toDel)
                    {
                        this->m_current = this->m_current->next;
                    }
                }
                else
                {
                    this->m_header.next = nullptr;
                    this->m_current = nullptr;
                }

                this->destroy(toDel);
            }
            else
            {
                ret = false;
            }
        }
        else
        {
            ret = DualLinkList<T>::remove(i);
        }

        return ret;
    }

    bool set(int i, const T &e) override  // O(n)
    {
        return DualLinkList<T>::set(mod(i), e);
    }

    T get(int i) const override  // O(n)
    {
        return DualLinkList<T>::get(mod(i));
    }

    bool get(int i, T &e) const override  // O(n)
    {
        return DualLinkList<T>::get(mod(i), e);
    }

    int find(const T &e) const // O(n)
    {
        int ret = -1;

        Node *slider = this->m_header.next;

        for (int i=0; i<this->m_length; ++i)
        {
            if (slider->value == e)
            {
                ret = i;
                break;
            }

            slider = slider->next;
        }

        return ret;
    }

    void clear() override  // O(n)
    {
        while (this->m_length > 1)
        {
            remove(1);  // 注意:为了效率,没有调用 remove(0)!
        }

        if(this->m_length == 1)
        {
            Node *toDel = this->m_header.next;

            this->m_header.next = nullptr;
            this->m_current = nullptr;
            this->m_length = 0;

            this->destroy(toDel);
        }
    }

    bool move(int i, int step = 1)
    {
        return DualLinkList<T>::move(mod(i), step);
    }

    bool end()  // O(n)
    {
        return ((this->m_length == 0) || (this->m_current == nullptr));
    }

    ~DualCircleList()  // O(n)
    {
        clear();
    }

protected:
    using Node = typename DualLinkList<T>::Node;

    Node *last() const // O(n)
    {
        return this->position(this->m_length - 1)->next;
    }

    void last_to_first() const // O(n)
    {
        Node *pfirst = this->m_header.next;
        Node *plast = this->last();
n
        plast->next = pfirst;
        pfirst->pre =plast;
    }

    int mod(int i) const // O(1)
    {
        return (this->m_length == 0) ? 0 : (i % this->m_length);
    }
};

}

#endif // DUALCIRCLELIST_H

文件:main.cpp

#include <iostream>
#include "DualCircleList.h"

using namespace std;
using namespace DTLib;


int main()
{
    DualCircleList<int> dl;

    for (int i=0; i<5; ++i)
    {
        dl.insert(0, i);
        dl.insert(0, 5);
    }

    for (int i=0; i<dl.length(); ++i)
    {
        cout << dl.get(i) << endl;
    }

    cout << "--------------" << endl;

    dl.move(dl.length()-1);

    for (int i=0; i<dl.length(); ++i)
    {
        if (dl.current() == 5)
        {
            cout << dl.current() << endl;
            dl.remove(dl.find(dl.current()));
        }
        else
        {
            dl.pre();
        }
    }

    cout << "--------------" << endl;

    dl.move(0);
    for (int i=0; i<dl.length(); ++i)
    {
        cout << dl.current() << endl;
        dl.next();
    }

    return 0;
}

输出:

5
4
5
3
5
2
5
1
5
0
--------------
5
5
5
5
5
--------------
4
3
2
1
0

作者:TianSong