Hadoop伪分布式搭建

服务器

浏览数:140

2019-10-9

1 系统环境

  • 搭建的系统环境为centos7.5
root@localhost ~]# lsb_release -a
LSB Version:    :core-4.1-amd64:core-4.1-noarch
Distributor ID: CentOS
Description:    CentOS Linux release 7.5.1804 (Core) 
Release:    7.5.1804
Codename:   Core

2 修改主机名

2.1 主机名修改为hadoop1

[root@localhost ~]# hostnamectl set-hostname hadoop1

2.2 查看主机名

[root@localhost ~]# hostnamectl 
   Static hostname: hadoop1
         Icon name: computer-vm
           Chassis: vm
        Machine ID: a34d80dce9364980962f9d85ffb5e9c8
           Boot ID: d624e2a84dc34619bfa2fe90e88eb058
    Virtualization: vmware
  Operating System: CentOS Linux 7 (Core)
       CPE OS Name: cpe:/o:centos:centos:7
            Kernel: Linux 3.10.0-862.11.6.el7.x86_64
      Architecture: x86-64

2.3 确认是否修改成功

[root@localhost ~]# hostnamectl --static
hadoop1
  • 重新登陆后主机名已更改

3 添加hadoop用户

  • 本次用hadoop用户部署,需要添加hadoop用户,密码也设置为hadoop。
[root@hadoop1 ~]# sudo useradd -m hadoop -s /bin/bash
[root@hadoop1 ~]# sudo passwd hadoop
  • 登陆
[root@hadoop1 ~]# ssh hadoop@hadoop1
# 输入密码登陆成功

4 设置免密登陆

  • 注意:这里免密登陆指的是hadoop账户登陆的hadoop1,再ssh hadoop@hadoop1。一定要设置免密登录,个人理解和各个机器之间互信一样的道理

    4.1 生成密钥

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ ssh-keygen -t rsa   # 三次回车
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ ssh-copy-id hadoop@hadoop1  # 输入密码

4.2 修改/etc/hosts文件

[root@hadoop1 ~]# vim /etc/hosts

在第一行添加: 本机IP hadoop1 的映射,如下:

172.16.142.129 hadoop1
127.0.0.1   localhost localhost.localdomain localhost4 localhost4.localdomain4
::1         localhost localhost.localdomain localhost6 localhost6.localdomain6

4.3 测试免密登陆成功

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ ssh hadoop@hadoop1
Warning: Permanently added the ECDSA host key for IP address '172.16.142.129' to the list of known hosts.
Last login: Sun Jul 21 16:45:14 2019 from 172.16.142.129

5 安装jdk1.8

5.1 说明

  • 本次安装的是JDK1.8,具体版本为jdk-8u101-linux-x64.tar.gz,使用root安装

5.2 下载jdk-8u101-linux-x64.tar.gz

[root@hadoop1 ~]# wget https://dl.cactifans.com/jdk/jdk-8u101-linux-x64.tar.gz

5.3 解压到/usr/local/下

[root@hadoop1 ~]# tar -zxvf jdk-8u101-linux-x64.tar.gz -C /usr/local/

5.4 配置JDK环境变量

  • 编辑/etc/profile
[root@hadoop1 ~]# vim /etc/profile

添加如下内容:

export JAVA_HOME=/usr/local/jdk1.8.0_101
export CLASSPATH=$CLASSPATH:$JAVA_HOME/lib:$JAVA_HOME/jre/lib 
export PATH=$JAVA_HOME/bin:$JAVA_HOME/jre/bin:$PATH:$HOME/bin
  • 使配置立即生效
[root@hadoop1 ~]# source /etc/profile

5.5 查看java信息,验证安装成功

[root@hadoop1 ~]# java -version
java version "1.8.0_101"
Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_101-b13)
Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.101-b13, mixed mode)

6 安装hadoop-2.7.6

6.1 说明

  • 本次安装的是hadoop-2.7.6,使用hadoop安装,所以先以hadoop用户登陆,ssh hadoop@hadoop1

6.2 下载

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ wget http://apache.fayea.com/hadoop/common/hadoop-2.7.6/hadoop-2.7.6.tar.gz

6.3 解压到/home/hadoop/apps下

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ mkdir -p ~/apps
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ tar -zxvf hadoop-2.7.6.tar.gz -C /home/hadoop/apps

6.4 修改hadoop-env.sh

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ cd /home/hadoop/apps/hadoop-2.7.6/etc/hadoop
[hadoop@hadoop1 hadoop]$ vim hadoop-env.sh 
  • 修改export JAVA_HOME=${JAVA_HOME}为
export JAVA_HOME=/usr/local/jdk1.8.0_101

6.5 修改core-site.xml

[hadoop@hadoop1 hadoop]$ vim core-site.xml
  • 添加如下配置
<configuration>
        <property>
                <name>fs.defaultFS</name>
                <value>hdfs://hadoop1:9000</value>
        </property>
        <property>
                <name>hadoop.tmp.dir</name>
                <value>/home/hadoop/data/hadoopdata</value>
        </property>
</configuration>

如图所示:

6.6 修改hdfs-site.xml

[hadoop@hadoop1 hadoop]$ vim hdfs-site.xml

添加如下配置:

      <property>
                <name>dfs.namenode.name.dir</name>
                <value>/home/hadoop/data/hadoopdata/name</value>
                <description>为了保证元数据的安全一般配置多个不同目录</description>
        </property>

        <property>
                <name>dfs.datanode.data.dir</name>
                <value>/home/hadoop/data/hadoopdata/data</value>
                <description>datanode 的数据存储目录</description>
        </property>

        <property>
                <name>dfs.replication</name>
                <value>2</value>
                <description>HDFS 的数据块的副本存储个数, 默认是3</description>
        </property>    

如图所示:

6.7 修改mapred-site.xml

[hadoop@hadoop1 hadoop]$ cp mapred-site.xml.template mapred-site.xml
[hadoop@hadoop1 hadoop]$ vim mapred-site.xml

添加如下配置:

        <property>
                <name>mapreduce.framework.name</name>
                <value>yarn</value>
        </property>

6.8 修改yarn-site.xml

[hadoop@hadoop1 hadoop]$ vim yarn-site.xml 

添加如下配置:

     <property>
                <name>yarn.nodemanager.aux-services</name>
                <value>mapreduce_shuffle</value>
                <description>YARN 集群为 MapReduce 程序提供的 shuffle 服务</description>
        </property>

如图所示:

6.9 Hadoop环境配置

  • 注意:由于是用hadoop用户登陆的,环境变量是~/.bashrc
[hadoop@hadoop1 hadoop]$ vim ~/.bashrc 
  • 添加如下配置:
# HADOOP_HOME
export HADOOP_HOME=/home/hadoop/apps/hadoop-2.7.6
export PATH=$PATH:$HADOOP_HOME/bin:$HADOOP_HOME/sbin:
  • 配置立即生效
[hadoop@hadoop1 hadoop]$ source ~/.bashrc

6.10 查看Hadoop版本

[hadoop@hadoop1 hadoop]$ hadoop version
Hadoop 2.7.6
Subversion https://shv@git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop.git -r 085099c66cf28be31604560c376fa282e69282b8
Compiled by kshvachk on 2018-04-18T01:33Z
Compiled with protoc 2.5.0
From source with checksum 71e2695531cb3360ab74598755d036
This command was run using /home/hadoop/apps/hadoop-2.7.6/share/hadoop/common/hadoop-common-2.7.6.jar

6.11 创建hdfs-site.xml里配置的路径

[hadoop@hadoop1 hadoop]$ mkdir -p /home/hadoop/data/hadoopdata/name
[hadoop@hadoop1 hadoop]$ mkdir -p /home/hadoop/data/hadoopdata/data

6.12 Hadoop的初始化

[hadoop@hadoop1 hadoop]$ hadoop namenode -format
  • 如图所示出现status 0即为初始化成功。

6.13 启动

[hadoop@hadoop1 hadoop]$ cd /home/hadoop/apps/hadoop-2.7.6
[hadoop@hadoop1 hadoop-2.7.6]$ sbin/start-dfs.sh
[hadoop@hadoop1 hadoop-2.7.6]$ sbin/start-yarn.sh

6.14 访问WebUI

  • 注意关闭防火墙
# 访问之前关闭防火墙
[root@hadoop1 ~]# systemctl stop firewalld
  • 浏览器访问http://IP:50070

7 安装scala(可选)

7.1 说明

  • 用root用户安装,版本为scala-2.12.0。

7.2 下载

[root@hadoop1 ~]# wget https://downloads.lightbend.com/scala/2.12.0/scala-2.12.0.tgz

7.2 解压至/usr/local/

[root@hadoop1 ~]# tar -zxvf scala-2.12.0.tgz -C /usr/local/

7.4 添加环境变量

[root@hadoop1 ~]# vim /etc/profile
  • 添加如下内容
# Scala env
export SCALA_HOME=/usr/local/scala-2.12.0
export PATH=$SCALA_HOME/bin:$PATH
  • 配置立即生效
[root@hadoop1 ~]# source /etc/profile

7.5 查看scala版本

[root@hadoop1 ~]# scala -version

8 安装spark

8.1 说明

  • 用hadoop用户安装spark-2.4.3-bin-hadoop2.7.tgz。

8.2 下载

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ wget http://apache.claz.org/spark/spark-2.4.3/spark-2.4.3-bin-hadoop2.7.tgz

8.3 解压

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ tar -zxvf spark-2.4.3-bin-hadoop2.7.tgz -C ~/apps/
  • 创建软链
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ cd ~/apps/
[hadoop@hadoop1 apps]$ ln -s spark-2.4.3-bin-hadoop2.7 spark

8.4 配置spark

[hadoop@hadoop1 apps]$ cd spark/conf
[hadoop@hadoop1 conf]$ cp spark-env.sh.template spark-env.sh
[hadoop@hadoop1 conf]$ vim spark-env.sh
  • 添加如下内容
export JAVA_HOME=/usr/local/jdk1.8.0_101
export SCALA_HOME=/usr/local/scala-2.12.0
export HADOOP_HOME=/home/hadoop/apps/hadoop-2.7.6
export HADOOP_CONF_DIR=/home/hadoop/apps/hadoop-2.7.6/etc/hadoop
export SPARK_MASTER_IP=hadoop1
export SPARK_MASTER_PORT=7077

8.5 配置环境变量

[hadoop@hadoop1 conf]$ vim ~/.bashrc
  • 输入如下内容
#SPARK_HOME
export SPARK_HOME=/home/hadoop/apps/spark
export PATH=$PATH:$SPARK_HOME/bin
  • 配置立即生效
[hadoop@hadoop1 conf]$ source ~/.bashrc 

8.6 启动spark

[hadoop@hadoop1 conf]$ ~/apps/spark/sbin/start-all.sh

  • 查看进程

8.7 访问WebUI

作者:ZingpLiu