详解 Java 8 HashMap 实现原理

Java基础

浏览数:124

2019-10-9

HashMap 是 Java 开发过程中常用的工具类之一,也是面试过程中常问的内容,此篇文件通过作者自己的理解和网上众多资料对其进行一个解析。作者本地的 JDK 版本为 64 位的 1.8.0_171。参考资料推荐以下两篇文章:

数据结构


结合上图及源码可以看出,HashMap 底层数据结构为 Node 类型数组,Node 类型为 HashMap 的内部类,数据结构为链表

/**
 * The table, initialized on first use, and resized as
 * necessary. When allocated, length is always a power of two.
 * (We also tolerate length zero in some operations to allow
 * bootstrapping mechanics that are currently not needed.)
 */
transient Node<K,V>[] table;
/**
 * Basic hash bin node, used for most entries.  (See below for
 * TreeNode subclass, and in LinkedHashMap for its Entry subclass.)
 */
static class Node<K,V> implements Map.Entry<K,V> {
    final int hash;
    final K key;
    V value;
    Node<K,V> next;

    Node(int hash, K key, V value, Node<K,V> next) {
        this.hash = hash;
        this.key = key;
        this.value = value;
        this.next = next;
    }

    public final K getKey()        { return key; }
    public final V getValue()      { return value; }
    public final String toString() { return key + "=" + value; }

    public final int hashCode() {
        return Objects.hashCode(key) ^ Objects.hashCode(value);
    }

    public final V setValue(V newValue) {
        V oldValue = value;
        value = newValue;
        return oldValue;
    }

    public final boolean equals(Object o) {
        if (o == this)
            return true;
        if (o instanceof Map.Entry) {
            Map.Entry<?,?> e = (Map.Entry<?,?>)o;
            if (Objects.equals(key, e.getKey()) &&
                Objects.equals(value, e.getValue()))
                return true;
        }
        return false;
    }
}

初始大小

HashMap 默认的初始大小为 16,如有特殊情况下需要自定义初始化大小时可调用 HashMap(int initialCapacity) 方法进行自定义。

/**
 * The default initial capacity - MUST be a power of two.
 */
static final int DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY = 1 << 4; // aka 16
/**
 * Constructs an empty <tt>HashMap</tt> with the specified initial
 * capacity and the default load factor (0.75).
 *
 * @param  initialCapacity the initial capacity.
 * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity is negative.
 */
public HashMap(int initialCapacity) {
    this(initialCapacity, DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR);
}

负载因子

负载因子默认为 0.75,当 HashMap 当前已使用容量大于当前大小 * 负载因子时,自动扩容一倍空间,如有特殊情况下需要自定义初始化大小时可调用 以下方法进行自定义。

/**
 * The load factor used when none specified in constructor.
 */
static final float DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR = 0.75f;
/**
 * Constructs an empty <tt>HashMap</tt> with the specified initial
 * capacity and load factor.
 *
 * @param  initialCapacity the initial capacity
 * @param  loadFactor      the load factor
 * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity is negative
 *         or the load factor is nonpositive
 */
public HashMap(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor) {
    if (initialCapacity < 0)
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal initial capacity: " +
                                            initialCapacity);
    if (initialCapacity > MAXIMUM_CAPACITY)
        initialCapacity = MAXIMUM_CAPACITY;
    if (loadFactor <= 0 || Float.isNaN(loadFactor))
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal load factor: " +
                                            loadFactor);
    this.loadFactor = loadFactor;
    this.threshold = tableSizeFor(initialCapacity);
}

树型阀值

树型阀值这个名字是作者根据字面意思自己翻译的,大家看看就好了,对应参数为TREEIFY_THRESHOLD,之前提到过 HashMap 的结构为 Node 型数组,而 Node 的数据结构为链表,树型阀值就是当链表长度超过这个值时,将 Node 的数据结构修改为红黑树,以便优化查找时间,默认值为8

/**
 * The bin count threshold for using a tree rather than list for a
 * bin.  Bins are converted to trees when adding an element to a
 * bin with at least this many nodes. The value must be greater
 * than 2 and should be at least 8 to mesh with assumptions in
 * tree removal about conversion back to plain bins upon
 * shrinkage.
 */
static final int TREEIFY_THRESHOLD = 8;

初始化

HashMap 提供以下四种构造方法进行初始化,前三种主要区别在于设置以上介绍的几个参数,第四种方法为通过其他 Map 实现创建 HashMap。

/**
 * Constructs an empty <tt>HashMap</tt> with the specified initial
 * capacity and load factor.
 *
 * @param  initialCapacity the initial capacity
 * @param  loadFactor      the load factor
 * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity is negative
 *         or the load factor is nonpositive
 */
public HashMap(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor) {
    if (initialCapacity < 0)
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal initial capacity: " +
                                            initialCapacity);
    if (initialCapacity > MAXIMUM_CAPACITY)
        initialCapacity = MAXIMUM_CAPACITY;
    if (loadFactor <= 0 || Float.isNaN(loadFactor))
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal load factor: " +
                                            loadFactor);
    this.loadFactor = loadFactor;
    this.threshold = tableSizeFor(initialCapacity);
}

/**
 * Constructs an empty <tt>HashMap</tt> with the specified initial
 * capacity and the default load factor (0.75).
 *
 * @param  initialCapacity the initial capacity.
 * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity is negative.
 */
public HashMap(int initialCapacity) {
    this(initialCapacity, DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR);
}

/**
 * Constructs an empty <tt>HashMap</tt> with the default initial capacity
 * (16) and the default load factor (0.75).
 */
public HashMap() {
    this.loadFactor = DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR; // all other fields defaulted
}

/**
 * Constructs a new <tt>HashMap</tt> with the same mappings as the
 * specified <tt>Map</tt>.  The <tt>HashMap</tt> is created with
 * default load factor (0.75) and an initial capacity sufficient to
 * hold the mappings in the specified <tt>Map</tt>.
 *
 * @param   m the map whose mappings are to be placed in this map
 * @throws  NullPointerException if the specified map is null
 */
public HashMap(Map<? extends K, ? extends V> m) {
    this.loadFactor = DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR;
    putMapEntries(m, false);
}

设置 HashMap 的值

put 方法是 HashMap 中使用率非常高的 API 之一,其源码实现如下,通过源码我们可以发现其原理主要分为以下两步:

  • 对 key 进行 hash 运算,然后再与当前 map 最后一个下标进行与运算确定其在数组中的位置,正是因为这个算法,我们可以得知 HashMap 中元素是无序的。
  • 确定其下标以后,如果当前位置为空则直接赋值,如果不为空则放到下一个节点,如果当前为链表且添加元素后的长度达到树型阀值,则将链表转换为红黑树
/**
 * Associates the specified value with the specified key in this map.
 * If the map previously contained a mapping for the key, the old
 * value is replaced.
 *
 * @param key key with which the specified value is to be associated
 * @param value value to be associated with the specified key
 * @return the previous value associated with <tt>key</tt>, or
 *         <tt>null</tt> if there was no mapping for <tt>key</tt>.
 *         (A <tt>null</tt> return can also indicate that the map
 *         previously associated <tt>null</tt> with <tt>key</tt>.)
 */
public V put(K key, V value) {
    return putVal(hash(key), key, value, false, true);
}

/**
 * Implements Map.put and related methods
 *
 * @param hash hash for key
 * @param key the key
 * @param value the value to put
 * @param onlyIfAbsent if true, don't change existing value
 * @param evict if false, the table is in creation mode.
 * @return previous value, or null if none
 */
final V putVal(int hash, K key, V value, boolean onlyIfAbsent,
                boolean evict) {
    Node<K,V>[] tab; Node<K,V> p; int n, i;
    if ((tab = table) == null || (n = tab.length) == 0)
        n = (tab = resize()).length;
    if ((p = tab[i = (n - 1) & hash]) == null)
        tab[i] = newNode(hash, key, value, null);
    else {
        Node<K,V> e; K k;
        if (p.hash == hash &&
            ((k = p.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k))))
            e = p;
        else if (p instanceof TreeNode)
            e = ((TreeNode<K,V>)p).putTreeVal(this, tab, hash, key, value);
        else {
            for (int binCount = 0; ; ++binCount) {
                if ((e = p.next) == null) {
                    p.next = newNode(hash, key, value, null);
                    if (binCount >= TREEIFY_THRESHOLD - 1) // -1 for 1st
                        treeifyBin(tab, hash);
                    break;
                }
                if (e.hash == hash &&
                    ((k = e.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k))))
                    break;
                p = e;
            }
        }
        if (e != null) { // existing mapping for key
            V oldValue = e.value;
            if (!onlyIfAbsent || oldValue == null)
                e.value = value;
            afterNodeAccess(e);
            return oldValue;
        }
    }
    ++modCount;
    if (++size > threshold)
        resize();
    afterNodeInsertion(evict);
    return null;
}

获取HashMap中的值

get 方法同样是 HashMap 中常用的 API 之一,参照其源码,其原理与 put 方法正好相反,分为以下两个部分:

  • 根据 key 的 hash 运算值获取数组中对应下标的内容
  • 循环链表或红黑树,然后匹配 value 值直至获得对应的值或返回 null
/**
 * Returns the value to which the specified key is mapped,
 * or {@code null} if this map contains no mapping for the key.
 *
 * <p>More formally, if this map contains a mapping from a key
 * {@code k} to a value {@code v} such that {@code (key==null ? k==null :
 * key.equals(k))}, then this method returns {@code v}; otherwise
 * it returns {@code null}.  (There can be at most one such mapping.)
 *
 * <p>A return value of {@code null} does not <i>necessarily</i>
 * indicate that the map contains no mapping for the key; it's also
 * possible that the map explicitly maps the key to {@code null}.
 * The {@link #containsKey containsKey} operation may be used to
 * distinguish these two cases.
 *
 * @see #put(Object, Object)
 */
public V get(Object key) {
    Node<K,V> e;
    return (e = getNode(hash(key), key)) == null ? null : e.value;
}

/**
 * Implements Map.get and related methods
 *
 * @param hash hash for key
 * @param key the key
 * @return the node, or null if none
 */
final Node<K,V> getNode(int hash, Object key) {
    Node<K,V>[] tab; Node<K,V> first, e; int n; K k;
    if ((tab = table) != null && (n = tab.length) > 0 &&
        (first = tab[(n - 1) & hash]) != null) {
        if (first.hash == hash && // always check first node
            ((k = first.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k))))
            return first;
        if ((e = first.next) != null) {
            if (first instanceof TreeNode)
                return ((TreeNode<K,V>)first).getTreeNode(hash, key);
            do {
                if (e.hash == hash &&
                    ((k = e.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k))))
                    return e;
            } while ((e = e.next) != null);
        }
    }
    return null;
}

/**
 * Calls find for root node.
 */
final TreeNode<K,V> getTreeNode(int h, Object k) {
    return ((parent != null) ? root() : this).find(h, k, null);
}

作者:☆★傲天★☆