lombok使用总结

Java基础

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2019-10-3

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前提

这篇文章主要介绍lombok的使用,至于lombok的源码和原理暂不探究,可以看上一篇文章插件化注解处理API去了解lombok的基本原理。参考资料:

简介

Project Lombok是一个java库,它可以自动插入到编辑器中,并构建工具,使java更加丰富。再也不用getter或equals方法了。尽早访问未来的java特性,比如val等等。这个就是lombok的官方简介(例如Jdk9中新增的val关键字在lombok中很早就出现了)。lombok实际上是基于JSR-269的插件化注解处理API,在编译期间对使用了特定注解的类、方法、属性或者代码片段进行动态修改,添加或者实现其自定义功能的类库。

安装

maven依赖

在项目中使用到lombok的注解必须引入其依赖:

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
    <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
    <version>${version}</version>
</dependency>

当前的最新版本为:1.16.20。

插件

如果不为IDE安装lombok的插件,IDE无法识别lombok编译期动态生成的代码,表现为代码块标红,因此需要安装其插件,插件地址:https://projectlombok.org/download。

下载完成后,将会得到一个jar包lombok-xx.xx.xx.jar,直接使用命令java -jar lombok-xx.xx.xx.jar运行即可,然后按照指引安装到IDEA、eclipse或者myeclipse。

lombok注解

@val

@val用于声明修饰符为final的局部变量类型,使用的时候不需要编写实际的类型,这一点依赖于编译器的类型推导。@val的作用域是局部变量。举例如下:

使用lombok:

 import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.HashMap;
import lombok.val;

public class ValExample {
  public String example() {
    val example = new ArrayList<String>();
    example.add("Hello, World!");
    val foo = example.get(0);
    return foo.toLowerCase();
  }
}  

相当于原生Java:

 import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

public class ValExample {
  public String example() {
    final ArrayList<String> example = new ArrayList<String>();
    example.add("Hello, World!");
    final String foo = example.get(0);
    return foo.toLowerCase();
  }
}

@var

@var的功能类似于@val,不过@var修饰的是非final修饰的局部变量。

@NonNull

@NonNull的作用域是属性(field)、方法参数或、构造函数参数以及局部变量(LOCAL_VARIABLE),为这些参数添加一个空检查语句,基本格式是:if(param == null) {throw new NullPointerException("param ");}

使用lombok:

import lombok.NonNull;

public class NonNullExample extends Something {
  private String name;
  
  public NonNullExample(@NonNull Person person) {
    super("Hello");
    this.name = person.getName();
  }
}

相当于原生Java:

import lombok.NonNull;

public class NonNullExample extends Something {
  private String name;
  
  public NonNullExample(@NonNull Person person) {
    super("Hello");
    if (person == null) {
      throw new NullPointerException("person");
    }
    this.name = person.getName();
  }
}

@Cleanup

你可以使用@Cleanup来确保在代码执行路径退出当前范围之前自动清理给定的资源,一般使用在流的局部变量的关闭。可以通过value()指定关闭资源的方法名,注意,关闭资源的方法必须是无参void方法,默认的关闭资源方法名称是”close”。

使用lombok:

import lombok.Cleanup;
import java.io.*;

public class CleanupExample {
  public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
    @Cleanup InputStream in = new FileInputStream(args[0]);
    @Cleanup OutputStream out = new FileOutputStream(args[1]);
    byte[] b = new byte[10000];
    while (true) {
      int r = in.read(b);
      if (r == -1) break;
      out.write(b, 0, r);
    }
  }
}

相当于原生Java:

import java.io.*;

public class CleanupExample {
  public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
    InputStream in = new FileInputStream(args[0]);
    try {
      OutputStream out = new FileOutputStream(args[1]);
      try {
        byte[] b = new byte[10000];
        while (true) {
          int r = in.read(b);
          if (r == -1) break;
          out.write(b, 0, r);
        }
      } finally {
        if (out != null) {
          out.close();
        }
      }
    } finally {
      if (in != null) {
        in.close();
      }
    }
  }
}

@Getter/@Setter

@Getter/@Setter作用域是属性或者类。@Getter为指定属性或者类中的所有属性生成Getter方法,@Setter指定非final属性或者类中的所有非final属性生成Setter方法。可以通过@Getter/@Setter的value()中的AccessLevel属性来指定生成的方法的修饰符,可以通过@Getter的布尔值属性lazy来指定是否延迟加载。

使用lombok:

 import lombok.AccessLevel;
import lombok.Getter;
import lombok.Setter;

public class GetterSetterExample {
  /**
   * Age of the person. Water is wet.
   * 
   * @param age New value for this person's age. Sky is blue.
   * @return The current value of this person's age. Circles are round.
   */
  @Getter @Setter private int age = 10;
  
  /**
   * Name of the person.
   * -- SETTER --
   * Changes the name of this person.
   * 
   * @param name The new value.
   */
  @Setter(AccessLevel.PROTECTED) private String name;
  
  @Override public String toString() {
    return String.format("%s (age: %d)", name, age);
  }
}

相当于原生Java:

public class GetterSetterExample {
  /**
   * Age of the person. Water is wet.
   */
  private int age = 10;

  /**
   * Name of the person.
   */
  private String name;
  
  @Override public String toString() {
    return String.format("%s (age: %d)", name, age);
  }
  
  /**
   * Age of the person. Water is wet.
   *
   * @return The current value of this person's age. Circles are round.
   */
  public int getAge() {
    return age;
  }
  
  /**
   * Age of the person. Water is wet.
   *
   * @param age New value for this person's age. Sky is blue.
   */
  public void setAge(int age) {
    this.age = age;
  }
  
  /**
   * Changes the name of this person.
   *
   * @param name The new value.
   */
  protected void setName(String name) {
    this.name = name;
  }
}

@ToString

@ToString的作用域是类,主要作用是覆盖类中的toString方法。@ToString的属性比较多,简介如下:

  • includeFieldNames():布尔值,默认为true,true表示拼接toString的时候使用属性名。
  • exclude():字符串数组,默认为空,用于通过属性名排除拼接toString时使用的属性。
  • of():exclude()属性的对立属性,意思就是include。
  • callSuper():布尔值,默认为false,是否调用父类的属性。
  • doNotUseGetters():布尔值,默认为false,true表示拼接toString的时候使用属性值而不是其Getter方法。

下面是官方例子:

使用lombok:

import lombok.ToString;

@ToString(exclude="id")
public class ToStringExample {
  private static final int STATIC_VAR = 10;
  private String name;
  private Shape shape = new Square(5, 10);
  private String[] tags;
  private int id;
  
  public String getName() {
    return this.name;
  }
  
  @ToString(callSuper=true, includeFieldNames=true)
  public static class Square extends Shape {
    private final int width, height;
    
    public Square(int width, int height) {
      this.width = width;
      this.height = height;
    }
  }
}

相当于原生Java:

import java.util.Arrays;

public class ToStringExample {
  private static final int STATIC_VAR = 10;
  private String name;
  private Shape shape = new Square(5, 10);
  private String[] tags;
  private int id;
  
  public String getName() {
    return this.getName();
  }
  
  public static class Square extends Shape {
    private final int width, height;
    
    public Square(int width, int height) {
      this.width = width;
      this.height = height;
    }
    
    @Override public String toString() {
      return "Square(super=" + super.toString() + ", width=" + this.width + ", height=" + this.height + ")";
    }
  }
  
  @Override public String toString() {
    return "ToStringExample(" + this.getName() + ", " + this.shape + ", " + Arrays.deepToString(this.tags) + ")";
  }
}

@EqualsAndHashCode

@EqualsAndHashCode的作用域是类,用于生成equals()和hashCode()方法。此注解的属性比较多,不过和@ToString类似。举例如下:

使用lombok:

import lombok.EqualsAndHashCode;

@EqualsAndHashCode(exclude={"id", "shape"})
public class EqualsAndHashCodeExample {
  private transient int transientVar = 10;
  private String name;
  private double score;
  private Shape shape = new Square(5, 10);
  private String[] tags;
  private int id;
  
  public String getName() {
    return this.name;
  }
  
  @EqualsAndHashCode(callSuper=true)
  public static class Square extends Shape {
    private final int width, height;
    
    public Square(int width, int height) {
      this.width = width;
      this.height = height;
    }
  }
}

相当于原生Java:

import java.util.Arrays;

public class EqualsAndHashCodeExample {
  private transient int transientVar = 10;
  private String name;
  private double score;
  private Shape shape = new Square(5, 10);
  private String[] tags;
  private int id;
  
  public String getName() {
    return this.name;
  }
  
  @Override public boolean equals(Object o) {
    if (o == this) return true;
    if (!(o instanceof EqualsAndHashCodeExample)) return false;
    EqualsAndHashCodeExample other = (EqualsAndHashCodeExample) o;
    if (!other.canEqual((Object)this)) return false;
    if (this.getName() == null ? other.getName() != null : !this.getName().equals(other.getName())) return false;
    if (Double.compare(this.score, other.score) != 0) return false;
    if (!Arrays.deepEquals(this.tags, other.tags)) return false;
    return true;
  }
  
  @Override public int hashCode() {
    final int PRIME = 59;
    int result = 1;
    final long temp1 = Double.doubleToLongBits(this.score);
    result = (result*PRIME) + (this.name == null ? 43 : this.name.hashCode());
    result = (result*PRIME) + (int)(temp1 ^ (temp1 >>> 32));
    result = (result*PRIME) + Arrays.deepHashCode(this.tags);
    return result;
  }
  
  protected boolean canEqual(Object other) {
    return other instanceof EqualsAndHashCodeExample;
  }
  
  public static class Square extends Shape {
    private final int width, height;
    
    public Square(int width, int height) {
      this.width = width;
      this.height = height;
    }
    
    @Override public boolean equals(Object o) {
      if (o == this) return true;
      if (!(o instanceof Square)) return false;
      Square other = (Square) o;
      if (!other.canEqual((Object)this)) return false;
      if (!super.equals(o)) return false;
      if (this.width != other.width) return false;
      if (this.height != other.height) return false;
      return true;
    }
    
    @Override public int hashCode() {
      final int PRIME = 59;
      int result = 1;
      result = (result*PRIME) + super.hashCode();
      result = (result*PRIME) + this.width;
      result = (result*PRIME) + this.height;
      return result;
    }
    
    protected boolean canEqual(Object other) {
      return other instanceof Square;
    }
  }
}

@NoArgsConstructor, @RequiredArgsConstructor, @AllArgsConstructor

这三个注解的作用域都是类。@NoArgsConstructor作用是生成一个无参数的构造函数。@AllArgsConstructor作用是生成一个具有所有字段的构造函数。@RequiredArgsConstructor的作用是为每一个使用了final或者@NonNull修饰的属性都生成一个只有一个参数的构造函数。这三个注解都可以通过staticName()指定构造的命名,通过access()指定构造的修饰符。@NoArgsConstructor的属性force()默认值为false,当类中存在final属性的时候使用了@NoArgsConstructor会编译错误,如果force()值为true,那么会把final修饰的属性作为”无参数构造”的参数,并且把属性赋值为0、null或者false。

使用lombok:

import lombok.AccessLevel;
import lombok.RequiredArgsConstructor;
import lombok.AllArgsConstructor;
import lombok.NonNull;

@RequiredArgsConstructor(staticName = "of")
@AllArgsConstructor(access = AccessLevel.PROTECTED)
public class ConstructorExample<T> {
  private int x, y;
  @NonNull private T description;
  
  @NoArgsConstructor
  public static class NoArgsExample {
    @NonNull private String field;
  }
}

相当于原生Java:

 public class ConstructorExample<T> {
  private int x, y;
  @NonNull private T description;
  
  private ConstructorExample(T description) {
    if (description == null) throw new NullPointerException("description");
    this.description = description;
  }
  
  public static <T> ConstructorExample<T> of(T description) {
    return new ConstructorExample<T>(description);
  }
  
  @java.beans.ConstructorProperties({"x", "y", "description"})
  protected ConstructorExample(int x, int y, T description) {
    if (description == null) throw new NullPointerException("description");
    this.x = x;
    this.y = y;
    this.description = description;
  }
  
  public static class NoArgsExample {
    @NonNull private String field;
    
    public NoArgsExample() {
    }
  }
}

@Data

@Data的作用域是类,相当于同时应用了@Getter、@Setter、@ToString、@EqualsAndHashCode、@RequiredArgsConstructor。如果已经显示自定义过构造函数,就不会再自动生成构造函数了。举例如下:

使用lombok:

import lombok.AccessLevel;
import lombok.Setter;
import lombok.Data;
import lombok.ToString;

@Data public class DataExample {
  private final String name;
  @Setter(AccessLevel.PACKAGE) private int age;
  private double score;
  private String[] tags;
  
  @ToString(includeFieldNames=true)
  @Data(staticConstructor="of")
  public static class Exercise<T> {
    private final String name;
    private final T value;
  }
}

相当于原生Java:

import java.util.Arrays;

public class DataExample {
  private final String name;
  private int age;
  private double score;
  private String[] tags;
  
  public DataExample(String name) {
    this.name = name;
  }
  
  public String getName() {
    return this.name;
  }
  
  void setAge(int age) {
    this.age = age;
  }
  
  public int getAge() {
    return this.age;
  }
  
  public void setScore(double score) {
    this.score = score;
  }
  
  public double getScore() {
    return this.score;
  }
  
  public String[] getTags() {
    return this.tags;
  }
  
  public void setTags(String[] tags) {
    this.tags = tags;
  }
  
  @Override public String toString() {
    return "DataExample(" + this.getName() + ", " + this.getAge() + ", " + this.getScore() + ", " + Arrays.deepToString(this.getTags()) + ")";
  }
  
  protected boolean canEqual(Object other) {
    return other instanceof DataExample;
  }
  
  @Override public boolean equals(Object o) {
    if (o == this) return true;
    if (!(o instanceof DataExample)) return false;
    DataExample other = (DataExample) o;
    if (!other.canEqual((Object)this)) return false;
    if (this.getName() == null ? other.getName() != null : !this.getName().equals(other.getName())) return false;
    if (this.getAge() != other.getAge()) return false;
    if (Double.compare(this.getScore(), other.getScore()) != 0) return false;
    if (!Arrays.deepEquals(this.getTags(), other.getTags())) return false;
    return true;
  }
  
  @Override public int hashCode() {
    final int PRIME = 59;
    int result = 1;
    final long temp1 = Double.doubleToLongBits(this.getScore());
    result = (result*PRIME) + (this.getName() == null ? 43 : this.getName().hashCode());
    result = (result*PRIME) + this.getAge();
    result = (result*PRIME) + (int)(temp1 ^ (temp1 >>> 32));
    result = (result*PRIME) + Arrays.deepHashCode(this.getTags());
    return result;
  }
  
  public static class Exercise<T> {
    private final String name;
    private final T value;
    
    private Exercise(String name, T value) {
      this.name = name;
      this.value = value;
    }
    
    public static <T> Exercise<T> of(String name, T value) {
      return new Exercise<T>(name, value);
    }
    
    public String getName() {
      return this.name;
    }
    
    public T getValue() {
      return this.value;
    }
    
    @Override public String toString() {
      return "Exercise(name=" + this.getName() + ", value=" + this.getValue() + ")";
    }
    
    protected boolean canEqual(Object other) {
      return other instanceof Exercise;
    }
    
    @Override public boolean equals(Object o) {
      if (o == this) return true;
      if (!(o instanceof Exercise)) return false;
      Exercise<?> other = (Exercise<?>) o;
      if (!other.canEqual((Object)this)) return false;
      if (this.getName() == null ? other.getValue() != null : !this.getName().equals(other.getName())) return false;
      if (this.getValue() == null ? other.getValue() != null : !this.getValue().equals(other.getValue())) return false;
      return true;
    }
    
    @Override public int hashCode() {
      final int PRIME = 59;
      int result = 1;
      result = (result*PRIME) + (this.getName() == null ? 43 : this.getName().hashCode());
      result = (result*PRIME) + (this.getValue() == null ? 43 : this.getValue().hashCode());
      return result;
    }
  }
}

@Value

@Value的作用域是类,和@Data类似,但是用于不可变类型。生成的类和所有字段都设置为final,所有字段都为private,自动生成Getter但是没有Setter,会生成初始化所有字段的构造函数。相当于同时应用了final、 @ToString、 @EqualsAndHashCode、 @AllArgsConstructor 、@FieldDefaults(makeFinal = true, level = AccessLevel.PRIVATE)和@Getter。

使用lombok:

import lombok.AccessLevel;
import lombok.experimental.NonFinal;
import lombok.experimental.Value;
import lombok.experimental.Wither;
import lombok.ToString;

@Value public class ValueExample {
  String name;
  @Wither(AccessLevel.PACKAGE) @NonFinal int age;
  double score;
  protected String[] tags;
  
  @ToString(includeFieldNames=true)
  @Value(staticConstructor="of")
  public static class Exercise<T> {
    String name;
    T value;
  }
}

相当于原生Java:

import java.util.Arrays;

public final class ValueExample {
  private final String name;
  private int age;
  private final double score;
  protected final String[] tags;
  
  @java.beans.ConstructorProperties({"name", "age", "score", "tags"})
  public ValueExample(String name, int age, double score, String[] tags) {
    this.name = name;
    this.age = age;
    this.score = score;
    this.tags = tags;
  }
  
  public String getName() {
    return this.name;
  }
  
  public int getAge() {
    return this.age;
  }
  
  public double getScore() {
    return this.score;
  }
  
  public String[] getTags() {
    return this.tags;
  }
  
  @java.lang.Override
  public boolean equals(Object o) {
    if (o == this) return true;
    if (!(o instanceof ValueExample)) return false;
    final ValueExample other = (ValueExample)o;
    final Object this$name = this.getName();
    final Object other$name = other.getName();
    if (this$name == null ? other$name != null : !this$name.equals(other$name)) return false;
    if (this.getAge() != other.getAge()) return false;
    if (Double.compare(this.getScore(), other.getScore()) != 0) return false;
    if (!Arrays.deepEquals(this.getTags(), other.getTags())) return false;
    return true;
  }
  
  @java.lang.Override
  public int hashCode() {
    final int PRIME = 59;
    int result = 1;
    final Object $name = this.getName();
    result = result * PRIME + ($name == null ? 43 : $name.hashCode());
    result = result * PRIME + this.getAge();
    final long $score = Double.doubleToLongBits(this.getScore());
    result = result * PRIME + (int)($score >>> 32 ^ $score);
    result = result * PRIME + Arrays.deepHashCode(this.getTags());
    return result;
  }
  
  @java.lang.Override
  public String toString() {
    return "ValueExample(name=" + getName() + ", age=" + getAge() + ", score=" + getScore() + ", tags=" + Arrays.deepToString(getTags()) + ")";
  }
  
  ValueExample withAge(int age) {
    return this.age == age ? this : new ValueExample(name, age, score, tags);
  }
  
  public static final class Exercise<T> {
    private final String name;
    private final T value;
    
    private Exercise(String name, T value) {
      this.name = name;
      this.value = value;
    }
    
    public static <T> Exercise<T> of(String name, T value) {
      return new Exercise<T>(name, value);
    }
    
    public String getName() {
      return this.name;
    }
    
    public T getValue() {
      return this.value;
    }
    
    @java.lang.Override
    public boolean equals(Object o) {
      if (o == this) return true;
      if (!(o instanceof ValueExample.Exercise)) return false;
      final Exercise<?> other = (Exercise<?>)o;
      final Object this$name = this.getName();
      final Object other$name = other.getName();
      if (this$name == null ? other$name != null : !this$name.equals(other$name)) return false;
      final Object this$value = this.getValue();
      final Object other$value = other.getValue();
      if (this$value == null ? other$value != null : !this$value.equals(other$value)) return false;
      return true;
    }
    
    @java.lang.Override
    public int hashCode() {
      final int PRIME = 59;
      int result = 1;
      final Object $name = this.getName();
      result = result * PRIME + ($name == null ? 43 : $name.hashCode());
      final Object $value = this.getValue();
      result = result * PRIME + ($value == null ? 43 : $value.hashCode());
      return result;
    }
    
    @java.lang.Override
    public String toString() {
      return "ValueExample.Exercise(name=" + getName() + ", value=" + getValue() + ")";
    }
  }
}

@Builder

@Builder的作用域是类,使用此注解后类中新增一个成员类(Builder)将会使用构建者模式,编译时增加了一个Builder内部类和全字段的构造器。@Builder.Default用于指定Builder中的属性的默认值,@Singular用于告诉lombok当前属性类型是集合类型,lombok会为信任的集合类型添加”adder”方法而不是”setter”方法。

使用lombok:

import lombok.Builder;
import lombok.Singular;
import java.util.Set;

@Builder
public class BuilderExample {
  @Builder.Default private long created = System.currentTimeMillis();
  private String name;
  private int age;
  @Singular private Set<String> occupations;
}

相当于原生Java:

 import java.util.Set;

public class BuilderExample {
  private long created;
  private String name;
  private int age;
  private Set<String> occupations;
  
  BuilderExample(String name, int age, Set<String> occupations) {
    this.name = name;
    this.age = age;
    this.occupations = occupations;
  }
  
  private static long $default$created() {
    return System.currentTimeMillis();
  }
  
  public static BuilderExampleBuilder builder() {
    return new BuilderExampleBuilder();
  }
  
  public static class BuilderExampleBuilder {
    private long created;
    private boolean created$set;
    private String name;
    private int age;
    private java.util.ArrayList<String> occupations;
    
    BuilderExampleBuilder() {
    }
    
    public BuilderExampleBuilder created(long created) {
      this.created = created;
      this.created$set = true;
      return this;
    }
    
    public BuilderExampleBuilder name(String name) {
      this.name = name;
      return this;
    }
    
    public BuilderExampleBuilder age(int age) {
      this.age = age;
      return this;
    }
    
    public BuilderExampleBuilder occupation(String occupation) {
      if (this.occupations == null) {
        this.occupations = new java.util.ArrayList<String>();
      }
      
      this.occupations.add(occupation);
      return this;
    }
    
    public BuilderExampleBuilder occupations(Collection<? extends String> occupations) {
      if (this.occupations == null) {
        this.occupations = new java.util.ArrayList<String>();
      }

      this.occupations.addAll(occupations);
      return this;
    }
    
    public BuilderExampleBuilder clearOccupations() {
      if (this.occupations != null) {
        this.occupations.clear();
      }
      
      return this;
    }

    public BuilderExample build() {
      // complicated switch statement to produce a compact properly sized immutable set omitted.
      Set<String> occupations = ...;
      return new BuilderExample(created$set ? created : BuilderExample.$default$created(), name, age, occupations);
    }
    
    @java.lang.Override
    public String toString() {
      return "BuilderExample.BuilderExampleBuilder(created = " + this.created + ", name = " + this.name + ", age = " + this.age + ", occupations = " + this.occupations + ")";
    }
  }
}

@Synchronized

@Synchronized的作用域是方法,用于方法同步,使用此注解后,方法体中的代码块自动包含在一个synchronize块中。synchronize块加锁的对象一定是类中的一个成员属性,可以通过@Synchronized的value()指定,如果不存在则由lombok新建,一般是private final Object $lock = new Object[0];

使用lombok:

import lombok.Synchronized;

public class SynchronizedExample {
  private final Object readLock = new Object();
  
  @Synchronized
  public static void hello() {
    System.out.println("world");
  }
  
  @Synchronized
  public int answerToLife() {
    return 42;
  }
  
  @Synchronized("readLock")
  public void foo() {
    System.out.println("bar");
  }
}

相当于原生Java:

 public class SynchronizedExample {
  private static final Object $LOCK = new Object[0];
  private final Object $lock = new Object[0];
  private final Object readLock = new Object();
  
  public static void hello() {
    synchronized($LOCK) {
      System.out.println("world");
    }
  }
  
  public int answerToLife() {
    synchronized($lock) {
      return 42;
    }
  }
  
  public void foo() {
    synchronized(readLock) {
      System.out.println("bar");
    }
  }
}

@SneakyThrows

@SneakyThrows的作用域是构造或者方法,用于自动捕获(隐藏)检查异常。我们知道,java对于检查异常,需要在编码时进行捕获,或者抛出。该注解的作用是将检查异常包装为运行时异常,那么编码时就无需处理异常了。

提示:不过这并不是友好的编码方式,因为你编写的api的使用者,不能显式的获知需要处理检查异常。

使用lombok:

import lombok.SneakyThrows;

public class SneakyThrowsExample implements Runnable {
  @SneakyThrows(UnsupportedEncodingException.class)
  public String utf8ToString(byte[] bytes) {
    return new String(bytes, "UTF-8");
  }
  
  @SneakyThrows
  public void run() {
    throw new Throwable();
  }
}

相当于原生Java:

import lombok.Lombok;

public class SneakyThrowsExample implements Runnable {
  public String utf8ToString(byte[] bytes) {
    try {
      return new String(bytes, "UTF-8");
    } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e) {
      throw Lombok.sneakyThrow(e);
    }
  }
  
  public void run() {
    try {
      throw new Throwable();
    } catch (Throwable t) {
      throw Lombok.sneakyThrow(t);
    }
  }
}

@Log

@Log的作用域是类,用于生成日志API句柄。目前支持的类型如下:

@CommonsLog 
相当于在类中定义了:private static final org.apache.commons.logging.Log log = org.apache.commons.logging.LogFactory.getLog(LogExample.class);
@JBossLog
相当于在类中定义了:private static final org.jboss.logging.Logger log = org.jboss.logging.Logger.getLogger(LogExample.class);
@Log
相当于在类中定义了:private static final java.util.logging.Logger log = java.util.logging.Logger.getLogger(LogExample.class.getName());
@Log4j
相当于在类中定义了:private static final org.apache.log4j.Logger log = org.apache.log4j.Logger.getLogger(LogExample.class);
@Log4j2
相当于在类中定义了:private static final org.apache.logging.log4j.Logger log = org.apache.logging.log4j.LogManager.getLogger(LogExample.class);
@Slf4j
相当于在类中定义了:private static final org.slf4j.Logger log = org.slf4j.LoggerFactory.getLogger(LogExample.class);
@XSlf4j
相当于在类中定义了:private static final org.slf4j.ext.XLogger log = org.slf4j.ext.XLoggerFactory.getXLogger(LogExample.class);

使用lombok:

import lombok.extern.java.Log;
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;

@Log
public class LogExample {
  
  public static void main(String... args) {
    log.error("Something's wrong here");
  }
}

@Slf4j
public class LogExampleOther {
  
  public static void main(String... args) {
    log.error("Something else is wrong here");
  }
}

@CommonsLog(topic="CounterLog")
public class LogExampleCategory {

  public static void main(String... args) {
    log.error("Calling the 'CounterLog' with a message");
  }
}

相当于原生Java:

 public class LogExample {
  private static final java.util.logging.Logger log = java.util.logging.Logger.getLogger(LogExample.class.getName());
  
  public static void main(String... args) {
    log.error("Something's wrong here");
  }
}

public class LogExampleOther {
  private static final org.slf4j.Logger log = org.slf4j.LoggerFactory.getLogger(LogExampleOther.class);
  
  public static void main(String... args) {
    log.error("Something else is wrong here");
  }
}

public class LogExampleCategory {
  private static final org.apache.commons.logging.Log log = org.apache.commons.logging.LogFactory.getLog("CounterLog");

  public static void main(String... args) {
    log.error("Calling the 'CounterLog' with a message");
  }
}

小结

其实从实现的角度来看,lombok并不是一个十分奇特的框架,它用到的技术已经是”很老的”Jdk6的一个特性,但是它表现出来的特性确实令人感觉它就是奇技淫巧。毕竟是奇技淫巧,很多不了解的人就会望然生畏,觉得使用了它很可能会导致系统出现无法预知的BUG之类(这里吐槽一下,笔者所在的公司禁用lombok)。其实,基于插件化注解处理API生成代码是位于编译期间,如果出现任何问题,很明显编译是不可能通过的。如果觉得lombok有问题,大可以去翻看每一个编译后的文件,看它们有没有表现异常。lombok在日常编码中可以极大提高效率,因此它一定是百益而无一害的。

(全文完)

作者:throwable