反爬虫微信文章(总结)

网络爬虫

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2019-8-29

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在爬虫时,某些网站会有封ip的现象,所以选择利用代理伪装我们的ip进行爬虫请求,但进行爬虫时可能需要很多ip,这时就要求维护一个代理池(池也就是代理队列),可放进代理,也可取出代理。

本文中选择的崔庆才老师维护的代理池,是用Flask和Redis维护的一个代理池。设计的基本思路

  • 从各大网站获取免费的有用代理
  • 用Redis来维护池的队列存储
  • 维护池,剔除无用的代理,获得有用的代理
  • Flask是实现代理池的一个接口,返回到web上

抓取微信文章思路

  1. 通过搜狗爬取微信文章
  2. 前十页信息不需要验证,10页到100页需要微信登录验证
  3. 发现浏览多页后会返回302状态码,跳到反爬虫的页面,此时的ip已经被封,需要输入3次验证码才能继续浏览
  4. 具体抓取步骤

1.抓取索引页内容:利用requests请求目标站点,得到索引网页HTML代码,返回结果。
2.代理设置:如果遇到302状态码,则证明IP被封,切换代理重试
3.分析详情页内容:请求详情页,分析得到标题,正文等内容
4.将数据保存到数据库

抓取索引页内容

import requests
from  requests.exceptions import RequestException
from urllib.parse import urlencode
base_url='http://weixin.sogou.com/weixin?'

def get_index(keyword,page):   #get请求参数
    data={
        'query':keyword,
        'type':2,
        'page':page
    }
    queries=urlencode(data)  #把key-value这样的键值对转换格式,返回a=1&b=1这样的字符串
    url=base_url + queries
    html=get_html(url)
    print(html)
headers={
    "Cookie":"GOTO=Af12649; SUV=00E5B570B70C546D5978B8154B874361; IPLOC=CN4403; SUID=6D540CB73320910A000000005978B816; pgv_pvi=1861927936; ABTEST=0|1502751070|v1; weixinIndexVisited=1; SNUID=8CBAF940F7F2AE29D86AFAC9F8AC0210; ld=TZllllllll2BKv3rlllllVuUeVyllllltq7@nyllllwlllll9llll5@@@@@@@@@@; LSTMV=201%2C260; LCLKINT=27637; sw_uuid=3851573336; sg_uuid=3001557157; ssuid=8893341825; dt_ssuid=7044358220; usid=XUhtela4MuqO4WYt; pgv_si=s423112704; JSESSIONID=aaaJ940C2hKSEd-V85U3v; sct=24; ppinf=5|1503111208|1504320808|dHJ1c3Q6MToxfGNsaWVudGlkOjQ6MjAxN3x1bmlxbmFtZTo3Omluc2lnaHR8Y3J0OjEwOjE1MDMxMTEyMDh8cmVmbmljazo3Omluc2lnaHR8dXNlcmlkOjQ0Om85dDJsdU1zWmxsOWVLRTNwb0M5TTMwLXFVSU1Ad2VpeGluLnNvaHUuY29tfA; pprdig=r6cB7eM-w6v2tvRQ42QrnnZYg1bhefjDUAxJ3pkm2ZzalCVcFlv74Mx4Ubz7E8NroDnQ1oTPxNJkYeBCkI8yqM9VNk7bHeTyMqT8wWjMz6rgh2dzXUE7wb1LGbInPhNUN_A1dTW0QoyV4ZNWaEgik3hYqi1EQwUaVoHAmy-pHLc; sgid=08-30426875-AVmXqCiaDYuwr4vkbBuwLlw0; ppmdig=1503121994000000ef911d3ebbde56dd937521fdd5448948",
    "Host": "weixin.sogou.com",
    'Upgrade-Insecure-Requests':'1',
    'User-Agent':'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/53.0.2785.104 Safari/537.36 Core/1.53.3226.400 QQBrowser/9.6.11681.400'
}  #为了能够看到100页后的东西,我们必须登录,这里的cooies就包括我们登录的效果
def get_html(url):
    try:
        response=requests.get(url,allow_redirects=False,headers=headers)#不让自动跳转????
        if response.status_code==200:
            return response.text
        if response.status_code==302:  #此时ip被封了,需要代理池poxy
            pass
    except ConnectionError:
        return get_html(url)

if __name__ == '__main__':
    get_index('风景',1)


输出的部分结果:
<!doctype html>
<html>
<head>
    <link rel="shortcut icon" href="http://logo.www.sogou.com/images/logo2014/new/favicon.ico" type="image/x-icon">
    <link href="/logo-safari.png?v=20170315" id="apple-touch-icon" rel="apple-touch-icon-precomposed"/>
    <link href="https://www.sogou.com/sug/css/m3.min.v.7.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css">
    <link href="/new/pc/css/weixin-public-new.min.css?v=20170315" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css">
    
        <link href="/new/pc/css/datepicker.min.css?v=20161107" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css">
    
    <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=Edge">
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
    <meta content="width=device-width,initial-scale=1.0" id="vp" name="viewport">
    <title>风景的相关微信公众号文章 – 搜狗微信搜索</title>
    
    <script>

显然上面的请求是成功的,但是只要请求10十次以上,我们的ip就会出现被封的现象。下面我们加入一个for循环来验证一下。

import requests
from  requests.exceptions import RequestException
from urllib.parse import urlencode
base_url='http://weixin.sogou.com/weixin?'

def get_index(keyword,page):   #get请求参数
    data={
        'query':keyword,
        'type':2,
        'page':page
    }
    queries=urlencode(data)  #把key-value这样的键值对转换格式,返回a=1&b=1这样的字符串
    url=base_url + queries
    html=get_html(url)
    return html
headers={
    "Cookie":"GOTO=Af12649; SUV=00E5B570B70C546D5978B8154B874361; IPLOC=CN4403; SUID=6D540CB73320910A000000005978B816; pgv_pvi=1861927936; ABTEST=0|1502751070|v1; weixinIndexVisited=1; SNUID=8CBAF940F7F2AE29D86AFAC9F8AC0210; ld=TZllllllll2BKv3rlllllVuUeVyllllltq7@nyllllwlllll9llll5@@@@@@@@@@; LSTMV=201%2C260; LCLKINT=27637; sw_uuid=3851573336; sg_uuid=3001557157; ssuid=8893341825; dt_ssuid=7044358220; usid=XUhtela4MuqO4WYt; pgv_si=s423112704; JSESSIONID=aaaJ940C2hKSEd-V85U3v; sct=24; ppinf=5|1503111208|1504320808|dHJ1c3Q6MToxfGNsaWVudGlkOjQ6MjAxN3x1bmlxbmFtZTo3Omluc2lnaHR8Y3J0OjEwOjE1MDMxMTEyMDh8cmVmbmljazo3Omluc2lnaHR8dXNlcmlkOjQ0Om85dDJsdU1zWmxsOWVLRTNwb0M5TTMwLXFVSU1Ad2VpeGluLnNvaHUuY29tfA; pprdig=r6cB7eM-w6v2tvRQ42QrnnZYg1bhefjDUAxJ3pkm2ZzalCVcFlv74Mx4Ubz7E8NroDnQ1oTPxNJkYeBCkI8yqM9VNk7bHeTyMqT8wWjMz6rgh2dzXUE7wb1LGbInPhNUN_A1dTW0QoyV4ZNWaEgik3hYqi1EQwUaVoHAmy-pHLc; sgid=08-30426875-AVmXqCiaDYuwr4vkbBuwLlw0; ppmdig=1503121994000000ef911d3ebbde56dd937521fdd5448948",
    "Host": "weixin.sogou.com",
    'Upgrade-Insecure-Requests':'1',
    'User-Agent':'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/53.0.2785.104 Safari/537.36 Core/1.53.3226.400 QQBrowser/9.6.11681.400'
}
keyword='风景'
def get_html(url):
    try:
        response=requests.get(url,allow_redirects=False,headers=headers)#不让自动跳转????
        if response.status_code==200:
            return response.text
        if response.status_code==302:  #此时ip被封了,需要代理池poxy
            print(302)
    except ConnectionError:
        return get_html(url)

def main():
    for page in range(1,100):
        html=get_index(keyword,page)
        print (html)

if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()


输出的部分结果:
302
None
302
None
302
None
302
None

所以接下为解决反爬虫这一问题,应该使用代理池

设置代理

from urllib.parse import urlencode
import pymongo
import requests
from lxml.etree import XMLSyntaxError
from requests.exceptions import ConnectionError
from pyquery import PyQuery as pq
from config2 import *

client = pymongo.MongoClient(MONGO_URI)
db = client[MONGO_DB]

base_url = 'http://weixin.sogou.com/weixin?'

headers={
    "Cookie":"GOTO=Af12649; SUV=00E5B570B70C546D5978B8154B874361; IPLOC=CN4403; SUID=6D540CB73320910A000000005978B816; pgv_pvi=1861927936; ABTEST=0|1502751070|v1; weixinIndexVisited=1; SNUID=8CBAF940F7F2AE29D86AFAC9F8AC0210; ld=TZllllllll2BKv3rlllllVuUeVyllllltq7@nyllllwlllll9llll5@@@@@@@@@@; LSTMV=201%2C260; LCLKINT=27637; sw_uuid=3851573336; sg_uuid=3001557157; ssuid=8893341825; dt_ssuid=7044358220; usid=XUhtela4MuqO4WYt; pgv_si=s423112704; JSESSIONID=aaaJ940C2hKSEd-V85U3v; sct=24; ppinf=5|1503111208|1504320808|dHJ1c3Q6MToxfGNsaWVudGlkOjQ6MjAxN3x1bmlxbmFtZTo3Omluc2lnaHR8Y3J0OjEwOjE1MDMxMTEyMDh8cmVmbmljazo3Omluc2lnaHR8dXNlcmlkOjQ0Om85dDJsdU1zWmxsOWVLRTNwb0M5TTMwLXFVSU1Ad2VpeGluLnNvaHUuY29tfA; pprdig=r6cB7eM-w6v2tvRQ42QrnnZYg1bhefjDUAxJ3pkm2ZzalCVcFlv74Mx4Ubz7E8NroDnQ1oTPxNJkYeBCkI8yqM9VNk7bHeTyMqT8wWjMz6rgh2dzXUE7wb1LGbInPhNUN_A1dTW0QoyV4ZNWaEgik3hYqi1EQwUaVoHAmy-pHLc; sgid=08-30426875-AVmXqCiaDYuwr4vkbBuwLlw0; ppmdig=1503121994000000ef911d3ebbde56dd937521fdd5448948",
    "Host": "weixin.sogou.com",
    'Upgrade-Insecure-Requests':'1',
    'User-Agent':'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/53.0.2785.104 Safari/537.36 Core/1.53.3226.400 QQBrowser/9.6.11681.400'
}

proxy = None
keyword='风景'
proxy_pool_url='http://127.0.0.1.5000/get'#这是获取的代理,呈现在本地客户端上
proxy=None  #一开始的时候是使用本机,不使用代理。并且设置为全局变量
max_count=5  #防止发生死循环,在获取代理失败时,最多递归五次获取代理


def get_proxy():
    try:
        response = requests.get(proxy_pool_url)
        if response.status_code == 200:
            return response.text
        return None
    except ConnectionError:
        return None

def get_html(url, count=1):
    print('Crawling', url)
    print('Trying Count', count)
    global proxy
    if count >=max_count :
        print('Tried Too Many Counts')
        return None
    try:
        if proxy:
            proxies = {
                'http': 'http://' + proxy
            }
            response = requests.get(url, allow_redirects=False, headers=headers, proxies=proxies)
        else:
            response = requests.get(url, allow_redirects=False, headers=headers)
        if response.status_code == 200:
            return response.text
        if response.status_code == 302:
            # Need Proxy
            print('302')
            proxy = get_proxy()
            if proxy:
                print('Using Proxy', proxy)
                return get_html(url)
            else:
                print('Get Proxy Failed')
                return None
    except ConnectionError as e:
        print('Error Occurred', e.args)
        proxy = get_proxy()
        count += 1
        return get_html(url, count)

def get_index(keyword, page):
    data = {
        'query': keyword,
        'type': 2,
        'page': page
    }
    queries = urlencode(data)
    url = base_url + queries
    html = get_html(url)
    return html

def main():
    for page in range(1, 101):
        html = get_index(keyword, page)
        print (html)


if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()



输出的部分结果
Crawling http://weixin.sogou.com/weixin?query=%E9%A3%8E%E6%99%AF&type=2&page=1
Trying Count 1
302
Get Proxy Failed
None
Crawling http://weixin.sogou.com/weixin?query=%E9%A3%8E%E6%99%AF&type=2&page=2
Trying Count 1
302
Get Proxy Failed
None
Crawling http://weixin.sogou.com/weixin?query=%E9%A3%8E%E6%99%AF&type=2&page=3
Trying Count 1
302
Get Proxy Failed
None

由于使用的是免费代理,可能会有很多人同时使用,就会出现代理不可用的的现象。

设置代理时注意:

  • 先到此网址(https://github.com/germey/proxypool)下载维护一个代理池所需要的文件,并有具体的安装教程
  • 把文件放入Pycharm中,Terminal 上运行run.py

    Pycharm截图

在Terminal 上可以同时spider.py 和run.py ,但要注意的是要切换到所在文件下。

  • 在Redis 的可视化工具Redis Desktop Manager 会显示如下图

Redis Desktop Manager

Paste_Image.png

获取详情页内容并存储数据

完整代码

config2.py
PROXY_POOL_URL = 'http://127.0.0.1:5000/get'
KEYWORD = '风景'
MONGO_URI = 'localhost'
MONGO_DB = 'weixin'
MAX_COUNT = 5


#spider.py
from urllib.parse import urlencode
import pymongo
import requests
from lxml.etree import XMLSyntaxError
from requests.exceptions import ConnectionError
from pyquery import PyQuery as pq
from config2 import *
client = pymongo.MongoClient(MONGO_URI)  #创建连接
db = client[MONGO_DB]#数据库命名
base_url = 'http://weixin.sogou.com/weixin?'
headers={
    "Cookie":"pgv_pvi=359512064; RK=TJdr85TKbn; noticeLoginFlag=0; cuid=9815965235; pgv_pvid=8398084628; o_cookie=893579569; ptui_loginuin=893579569; ptcz=8a66bc651eed7aa9d76cf6979edcfd818243e424466422c2b05b114da47da360; pt2gguin=o0893579569",
    "Host": "weixin.sogou.com",
    'Upgrade-Insecure-Requests':'1',
    'User-Agent':'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/53.0.2785.104 Safari/537.36 Core/1.53.3226.400 QQBrowser/9.6.11681.400'
} #这里的Cookies 会存在超时现象,可以时常更换。
proxy=None  #一开始的时候是使用本机,不使用代理。并且设置为全局变量
#下面的几个变量写到了配置文件,之所以没有删除,参考使用
#keyword='风景'
#proxy_pool_url='http://127.0.0.1.5000/get'#这是获取的代理,呈现在本地客户端上
#max_count=5  #防止发生死循环,在获取代理失败时,最多递归五次获取代理

def get_proxy():
    try:
        response = requests.get(PROXY_POOL_URL)
        if response.status_code == 200:
            return response.text
        return None
    except ConnectionError:
        return None

def get_html(url, count=1):
    print('Crawling', url)
    print('Trying Count', count)
    global proxy
    if count >=MAX_COUNT :
        print('Tried Too Many Counts')
        return None
    try:
        if proxy:
            proxies = {
                'http': 'http://' + proxy
            }
            response = requests.get(url, allow_redirects=False, headers=headers, proxies=proxies)
        else:
            response = requests.get(url, allow_redirects=False, headers=headers)
        if response.status_code == 200:
            return response.text
        if response.status_code == 302:
            # Need Proxy
            print('302')
            proxy = get_proxy()
            if proxy:
                print('Using Proxy', proxy)
                return get_html(url)
            else:
                print('Get Proxy Failed')
                return None
    except ConnectionError as e:
        print('Error Occurred', e.args)
        proxy = get_proxy()
        count += 1
        return get_html(url, count)

def get_index(keyword, page):
    data = {
        'query': keyword,
        'type': 2,
        'page': page
    }
    queries = urlencode(data)  ##把key-value这样的键值对转换格式,返回a=1&b=1这样的字符串
    url = base_url + queries
    html = get_html(url)
    return html

def parse_index(html):   #解析索引页
    doc=pq(html)
    items=doc('.new-box .new-list li .txt-box h3 a').items()
    for item in items:
        yield item.attr('href')

def get_detail(url):   #获得详情页
    try:
        response=requests.get(url)
        if response.status_code==200:
            return response.text
        return None
    except ConnectionError:
        return None

def parse_detail(html):
    try:
        doc=pq(html)
        title=doc('.rich_media_title').text()
        content=doc('.rich_media_content').text()
        date=doc('#post-date').text()
        nickname = doc('#js_profile_qrcode > div > strong').text()
        wechat=doc('#js_profile_qrcode > div > p:nth-child(3)').text()
        return {
            'title':title,
            'content':content,
            'date':date,
            'nickname':nickname,
            'wechat':wechat
        }
    except XMLSyntaxError:  #pyquery 解析的出现了一个自符的错误,在这里捕捉下并返回为None
        return None

def save_to_mongo(data):
    if db['articles'].update({'title': data['title']}, {'$set': data}, True): #{'title': data['title']}表示查询的范围;{'$set': data}表示要更新的内容;True的作用,如果查询到结果就更新,如果没查到结果就插入
        print('Saved to Mongo', data['title'])
    else:
        print('Saved to Mongo Failed', data['title'])

def main():
    for page in range(1, 101):
        html = get_index(KEYWORD, page)
        if html:
            article_urls=parse_index(html)
            for article_url in article_urls:
                article_html=get_detail(article_url)
                if article_html:
                    article_datas=parse_detail(article_urls)
                    print (article_datas)

if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()



输出的部分结果
Crawling http://weixin.sogou.com/weixin?query=%E9%A3%8E%E6%99%AF&type=2&page=19
Trying Count 1
302
Using Proxy 104.219.177.221:8080
Crawling http://weixin.sogou.com/weixin?query=%E9%A3%8E%E6%99%AF&type=2&page=19
Trying Count 1
302
Using Proxy 172.8.207.192:3128
Crawling http://weixin.sogou.com/weixin?query=%E9%A3%8E%E6%99%AF&type=2&page=19
Trying Count 1

Redis安装
RedisDesktopManager安装
(选择0.8.8版本,下载exe文件即可)

作者:凡人求索