Java 调用http接口(基于OkHttp的Http工具类方法示例)

Java基础

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2019-8-18

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Java 调用http接口(基于OkHttp的Http工具类方法示例)

现在的互联网项目中,自己单撸所有功能的时代已经过去了,有些功能往往有第三方或者公司其他团队提供服务,你要做得仅仅就是和它们进行对接。对接一些大公司提供的服务时,它们往往会提供对应语言的SDK和说明文档;而团队与团队之间的项目对接往往通过接口进行数据交互,往往都是HTTP JSON交互的形式。

本文介绍如何使用这些API,然后给出博主自己写的一个工具列demo,需要的可以在此基础上修改。

OkHttp3

一般来说,Java 直接调用HTTP接口常见的有三种方式,第一种是JDK原生的方式,第二种是apache 提供的HTTP工具,还有一种是本文着重介绍的OkHttp3工具

OkHttp3官方文档介绍了它的4点优势:

  • HTTP/2支持允许对同一主机的所有请求共享一个socket。
  • 连接池减少了请求延迟(如果HTTP/2不可用)。
  • 透明GZIP压缩下载大小。
  • 响应缓存完全避免了网络重复请求。

使用OkHttp很容易。它的请求/响应API设计为流畅的构建器和不变性。它同时支持同步阻塞调用和带回调的异步调用。

下面介绍一下常见的GET方法和POST方法官方示例,首先添加依赖:

MAVEN依赖

<!--okhttp依赖-->
<dependency>
    <groupId>com.squareup.okhttp3</groupId>
    <artifactId>okhttp</artifactId>
    <version>4.0.0</version>
</dependency>

Http get操作示例

OkHttpClient client = new OkHttpClient();

String run(String url) throws IOException {
  Request request = new Request.Builder()
      .url(url)
      .build();

  try (Response response = client.newCall(request).execute()) {
    return response.body().string();
  }
}

Http Post操作示例

public static final MediaType JSON
    = MediaType.get("application/json; charset=utf-8");

OkHttpClient client = new OkHttpClient();

String post(String url, String json) throws IOException {
  RequestBody body = RequestBody.create(JSON, json);
  Request request = new Request.Builder()
      .url(url)
      .post(body)
      .build();
  try (Response response = client.newCall(request).execute()) {
    return response.body().string();
  }
}

Http 超时控制

当调用的对等方不可用时,超时使调用失败。网络可能是由于客户机连接问题、服务器可用性问题或两者之间的任何问题造成的。OkHttp支持连接、读取和写入超时。

private final OkHttpClient client;

public ConfigureTimeouts() throws Exception {
    client = new OkHttpClient.Builder()
        .connectTimeout(10, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
        .writeTimeout(10, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
        .readTimeout(30, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
        .build();
    }

public void run() throws Exception {
    Request request = new Request.Builder()
        .url("http://httpbin.org/delay/2") // This URL is served with a 2 second delay.
        .build();

    try (Response response = client.newCall(request).execute()) {
        System.out.println("Response completed: " + response);
    }
}

工具类示例

提供同步的GET和POST调用工具方法示例,提供了异步调用HTTP接口的demo

import okhttp3.*;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
import org.springframework.http.HttpMethod;
import org.springframework.scheduling.annotation.AsyncResult;
import org.springframework.util.CollectionUtils;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.concurrent.Future;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import java.util.function.Consumer;

/**
 * @author axin
 * @since 2019-08-14
 */
public class OkHttpUtils {

    private static final Logger log = LoggerFactory.getLogger(OkHttpUtils.class);

    private static final String HTTP_JSON = "application/json; charset=utf-8";

    private static final OkHttpClient okHttpClient = new OkHttpClient.Builder()
            .connectTimeout(120, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
            .readTimeout(120, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
            .writeTimeout(120, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
            .build();


    /**
     * get请求
     * 对于小文档,响应体上的string()方法非常方便和高效。
     * 但是,如果响应主体很大(大于1 MB),则应避免string(),
     * 因为它会将整个文档加载到内存中。在这种情况下,将主体处理为流。
     *
     * @param url
     * @return
     */
    public static String httpGet(String url) {
        if (url == null || "".equals(url)) {
            log.error("url为null!");
            return "";
        }

        Request.Builder builder = new Request.Builder();
        Request request = builder.get().url(url).build();
        try {
            Response response = okHttpClient.newCall(request).execute();
            if (response.code() == 200) {
                log.info("http GET 请求成功; [url={}]", url);
                return response.body().string();
            } else {
                log.warn("Http GET 请求失败; [errorCode = {} , url={}]", response.code(), url);
            }
        } catch (IOException e) {
            throw new RuntimeException("同步http GET 请求失败,url:" + url, e);
        }
        return null;
    }

    public static String httpGet(String url, Map<String, String> headers) {
        if (CollectionUtils.isEmpty(headers)) {
            return httpGet(url);
        }

        Request.Builder builder = new Request.Builder();
        headers.forEach((String key, String value) -> builder.header(key, value));
        Request request = builder.get().url(url).build();
        try {
            Response response = okHttpClient.newCall(request).execute();
            if (response.code() == 200) {
                log.info("http GET 请求成功; [url={}]", url);
                return response.body().string();
            } else {
                log.warn("Http GET 请求失败; [errorxxCode = {} , url={}]", response.code(), url);
            }
        } catch (IOException e) {
            throw new RuntimeException("同步http GET 请求失败,url:" + url, e);
        }
        return null;
    }

    /**
     * 同步 POST调用 无Header
     *
     * @param url
     * @param json
     * @return
     */
    public static String httpPostJson(String url, String json) {
        if (url == null || "".equals(url)) {
            log.error("url为null!");
            return "";
        }

        MediaType JSON = MediaType.parse(HTTP_JSON);
        RequestBody body = RequestBody.create(JSON, json);
        Request.Builder requestBuilder = new Request.Builder().url(url);
        Request request = requestBuilder.post(body).build();
        try {
            Response response = okHttpClient.newCall(request).execute();
            if (response.code() == 200) {
                log.info("http Post 请求成功; [url={}, requestContent={}]", url, json);
                return response.body().string();
            } else {
                log.warn("Http POST 请求失败; [ errorCode = {}, url={}, param={}]", response.code(), url, json);
            }
        } catch (IOException e) {
            throw new RuntimeException("同步http请求失败,url:" + url, e);
        }
        return null;
    }

    /**
     * 同步 POST调用 有Header
     *
     * @param url
     * @param headers
     * @param json
     * @return
     */
    public static String httpPostJson(String url, Map<String, String> headers, String json) {
        if (CollectionUtils.isEmpty(headers)) {
            httpPostJson(url, json);
        }

        MediaType JSON = MediaType.parse(HTTP_JSON);
        RequestBody body = RequestBody.create(JSON, json);
        Request.Builder requestBuilder = new Request.Builder().url(url);
        headers.forEach((k, v) -> requestBuilder.addHeader(k, v));
        Request request = requestBuilder.post(body).build();
        try {
            Response response = okHttpClient.newCall(request).execute();
            if (response.code() == 200) {
                log.info("http Post 请求成功; [url={}, requestContent={}]", url, json);
                return response.body().string();
            } else {
                log.warn("Http POST 请求失败; [ errorCode = {}, url={}, param={}]", response.code(), url, json);
            }
        } catch (IOException e) {
            throw new RuntimeException("同步http请求失败,url:" + url, e);
        }
        return null;
    }

    /**
     * 异步Http调用参考模板:Get、Post、Put
     * 需要异步调用的接口一般情况下你需要定制一个专门的Http方法
     *
     * @param httpMethod
     * @param url
     * @param content
     * @return
     */
    @Deprecated
    public static Future<Boolean> asyncHttpByJson(HttpMethod httpMethod, String url, Map<String, String> headers, String content) {
        MediaType JSON = MediaType.parse(HTTP_JSON);
        RequestBody body = RequestBody.create(JSON, content);

        Request.Builder requestBuilder = new Request.Builder()
                .url(url);

        if (!CollectionUtils.isEmpty(headers)) {
            headers.forEach((key, value) -> requestBuilder.header(key, value));
        }

        switch (httpMethod) {
            case GET:
                requestBuilder.get();
                break;
            case POST:
                requestBuilder.post(body);
                break;
            default:
        }

        Request request = requestBuilder.build();
        Call call = okHttpClient.newCall(request);
        call.enqueue(new Callback() {
            @Override
            public void onFailure(Call call, IOException e) {
                log.error("异步http {} 请求失败,[url={}, param={}]", httpMethod.name(), url, content);
                throw new RuntimeException("异步http请求失败,url:" + url);
            }

            @Override
            public void onResponse(Call call, final Response response) throws IOException {
                if (response.code() == 200) {
                    System.out.println("需要加入异步回调操作");
                } else {
                    log.error("异步http {} 请求失败,错误码为{},请求参数为[url={}, param={}]", httpMethod.name(), response.code(), url, content);
                }
            }
        });
        return new AsyncResult(true);
    }

    /**
     * lambda表达式异步调用http模板,不建议使用
     *
     * @param request
     * @param failure
     * @param respConsumer
     */
    public static void asyncCall(Request request, Consumer<Exception> failure, Consumer<Response> respConsumer) {
        okHttpClient.newCall(request).enqueue(new Callback() {
            @Override
            public void onFailure(Call call, IOException e) {
                failure.accept(e);
            }

            @Override
            public void onResponse(Call call, Response response) throws IOException {
                respConsumer.accept(response);
            }
        });
    }

    //test
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        String url = "http://www.baidu.com";
        System.out.println(httpGet(url));
    }

}

作者:上帝爱吃苹果-Soochow