Postgresql插入或更新操作upsert

Java基础

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2019-6-18

幂等性的一个要求是多次操作的结果一致。对于update操作,多次直接的结果都是最后update的值,是满足需求的。但对于insert,如果已经插入,第二次会报错,duplicate error, 主键重复或者unique key duplicate。所以需要做一下处理。

最简单的就是,try-catch,当报错的时候,调用update去更新,或者策略更简单点,直接返回就行,不需要更新,以第一条为准。

PostgreSQL从9.5之后就提供了原子的upsert语法: 不存在则插入,发生冲突可以update。

## Inert语法

官方文档: https://www.postgresql.org/docs/devel/sql-insert.html

[ WITH [ RECURSIVE ] with_query [, ...] ]
INSERT INTO table_name [ AS alias ] [ ( column_name [, ...] ) ]
   [ OVERRIDING { SYSTEM | USER} VALUE ]
   { DEFAULT VALUES | VALUES ( { expression | DEFAULT } [, ...] ) [, ...] | query }
   [ ON CONFLICT [ conflict_target ] conflict_action ]
   [ RETURNING * | output_expression [ [ AS ] output_name ] [, ...] ]

where conflict_target can be one of:

   ( { index_column_name | ( index_expression ) } [ COLLATE collation ] [ opclass ] [, ...] ) [ WHERE index_predicate ]
   ON CONSTRAINT constraint_name

and conflict_action is one of:

   DO NOTHING
   DO UPDATE SET { column_name = { expression | DEFAULT } |
                   ( column_name [, ...] ) = [ ROW ] ( { expression | DEFAULT } [, ...] ) |
                   ( column_name [, ...] ) = ( sub-SELECT )
                 } [, ...]
             [ WHERE condition ]

index_column_name

The name of a table_name column. Used to infer arbiter indexes. Follows CREATE INDEX format. SELECT privilege on index_column_name is required.

index_expression

Similar to index_column_name, but used to infer expressions on table_name columns appearing within index definitions (not simple columns). Follows CREATE INDEX format. SELECT privilege on any column appearing within index_expression is required.

## 使用示例

创建表
CREATE TABLE "test"."upsert_test" ( "id" int4 NOT NULL, "name" varchar(255) COLLATE "pg_catalog"."default" ) ;

当主键id冲突时,更新其他字段
INSERT INTO test.upsert_test(id, "name") VALUES(1, 'm'),(2, 'n'),(4, 'c') ON conflict(id) DO UPDATE SET "name" = excluded.name;

  • did 冲突的主键
  • EXCLUDED 代指要插入的记录

当主键或者unique key发生冲突时,什么都不做

INSERT INTO test.upsert_test(id, "name")
VALUES(1, 'm'),(2, 'n'),(4, 'c')
ON conflict(id)  DO NOTHING;

作者:Ryan.Miao