[UWP 自定义控件]了解模板化控件(5.1):TemplatePart vs. VisualState

C#

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2019-5-16

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UWP自定义控件的入门文章

1. TemplatePart vs. VisualState

在前面两篇文章中分别使用了TemplatePart及VisualState的方式实现了相同的功能,其中明显VisualState的方式更灵活一些。如果遇到这种情况通常我更倾向使用VisualState。不过在实际应用中这两种实现方式并不是互斥的,很多模板化控件都同时使用这两种方式,

使用VisualState有如下好处:

  • 代码和UI分离。
  • 可以更灵活地扩展控件。
  • 可以使用Blend轻松实现动画。

并不是说VisualState好处这么多就一定要用VisualState实现所有功能,下面这些情况我会选择使用TemplatePart:

  • 需要快速实现一个控件。
  • 某个行为时固定的,不需要扩展。
  • 需要在代码中操作UI,譬如Slider或ComboBox。
  • 为了强调某个部件是控件必须的。
  • 为了隐藏实现细节,限制派生类或ControlTemplate修改重要的逻辑。

其中,使用TemplatePart产生的扩展性问题是我谨慎使用这种方案的最大因素。

2. TemplatePart vs. TemplateBinding

除了VisualState,TemplatePart的功能也常常会被TemplateBinding代替。前面的例子展示了使用VisualState在UI上的优势,这次用另一个控件DateTimeSelector来讨论使用TemplatePart在扩展性上的其它问题。

2.1 使用TemplatePart

DateTimeSelector组合了CalendarDatePicker和TimePicker,用于选择日期和时间(SelectedDateTime)。它的XAML如下:

<Style TargetType="local:DateTimeSelector">
    <Setter Property="Template">
        <Setter.Value>
            <ControlTemplate TargetType="local:DateTimeSelector">
                <StackPanel Background="{TemplateBinding Background}"
                            BorderBrush="{TemplateBinding BorderBrush}"
                            BorderThickness="{TemplateBinding BorderThickness}">
                    <CalendarDatePicker x:Name="DateElement"
                                        Margin="0,0,0,5" />
                    <TimePicker x:Name="TimeElement" />
                </StackPanel>
            </ControlTemplate>
        </Setter.Value>
    </Setter>
</Style>

代码如下:

[TemplatePart(Name = DateElementPartName, Type = typeof(CalendarDatePicker))]
[TemplatePart(Name = TimeElementPartName, Type = typeof(TimePicker))]
public class DateTimeSelector : Control
{
    public const string DateElementPartName = "DateElement";
    public const string TimeElementPartName = "TimeElement";

    /// <summary>
    /// 标识 SelectedDateTime 依赖属性。
    /// </summary>
    public static readonly DependencyProperty SelectedDateTimeProperty =
        DependencyProperty.Register("SelectedDateTime", typeof(DateTime), typeof(DateTimeSelector), new PropertyMetadata(DateTime.Now, OnSelectedDateTimeChanged));

    private static void OnSelectedDateTimeChanged(DependencyObject obj, DependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs args)
    {
        DateTimeSelector target = obj as DateTimeSelector;
        DateTime oldValue = (DateTime)args.OldValue;
        DateTime newValue = (DateTime)args.NewValue;
        if (oldValue != newValue)
            target.OnSelectedDateTimeChanged(oldValue, newValue);
    }

    public DateTimeSelector()
    {
        this.DefaultStyleKey = typeof(DateTimeSelector);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// 获取或设置SelectedDateTime的值
    /// </summary>  
    public DateTime SelectedDateTime
    {
        get { return (DateTime)GetValue(SelectedDateTimeProperty); }
        set { SetValue(SelectedDateTimeProperty, value); }
    }

    private CalendarDatePicker _dateElement;
    private TimePicker _timeElement;
    private bool _isUpdatingDateTime;

    protected override void OnApplyTemplate()
    {
        base.OnApplyTemplate();
        if (_dateElement != null)
            _dateElement.DateChanged -= OnDateElementDateChanged;

        _dateElement = GetTemplateChild(DateElementPartName) as CalendarDatePicker;
        if (_dateElement != null)
            _dateElement.DateChanged += OnDateElementDateChanged;

        if (_timeElement != null)
            _timeElement.TimeChanged -= OnTimeElementTimeChanged;

        _timeElement = GetTemplateChild(TimeElementPartName) as TimePicker;
        if (_timeElement != null)
            _timeElement.TimeChanged += OnTimeElementTimeChanged;

        UpdateElement();
    }

    protected virtual void OnSelectedDateTimeChanged(DateTime oldValue, DateTime newValue)
    {
        UpdateElement();
    }

    private void OnDateElementDateChanged(CalendarDatePicker sender, CalendarDatePickerDateChangedEventArgs args)
    {
        UpdateSelectDateTime();
    }

    private void OnTimeElementTimeChanged(object sender, TimePickerValueChangedEventArgs e)
    {
        UpdateSelectDateTime();
    }

    private void UpdateElement()
    {
        _isUpdatingDateTime = true;
        try
        {
            if (_dateElement != null)
                _dateElement.Date = SelectedDateTime.Date;

            if (_timeElement != null)
                _timeElement.Time = SelectedDateTime.TimeOfDay;
        }
        finally
        {
            _isUpdatingDateTime = false;
        }
    }

    private void UpdateSelectDateTime()
    {
        if (_isUpdatingDateTime)
            return;

        DateTime dateTime = DateTime.Now;
        if (_dateElement != null && _dateElement.Date.HasValue)
            dateTime = _dateElement.Date.Value.Date;

        if (_timeElement != null)
            dateTime = dateTime.Add(_timeElement.Time);

        SelectedDateTime = dateTime;
    }
}

可以看出,DateTimeSelector通过监视CalendarDatePicker的DateChanged和TimePicker的TimeChanged来改变SelectedDateTime的值。

DateTimeSelector的代码很简单,控件也工作得很好,但如果某天需要将CalendarDatePicker 替换为DatePicker或某个第三方的日期选择控件,DateTimeSelector就无能为力了,既不能通过修改ControlTemplate,也不能通过继承来达到目的。

2.2. 使用TemplateBinding

通常在构建这类控件时应先考虑它的数据和行为,而不关心它的UI。DateTimeSelector最核心的功能是通过选择Date和Time得出组合起来的DateTime,那么就可以先写出如下的类:

public class DateTimeSelector2 : Control
{
    /// <summary>
    /// 标识 Date 依赖属性。
    /// </summary>
    public static readonly DependencyProperty DateProperty =
        DependencyProperty.Register("Date", typeof(DateTime), typeof(DateTimeSelector2), new PropertyMetadata(DateTime.Now, OnDateChanged));

    private static void OnDateChanged(DependencyObject obj, DependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs args)
    {
        DateTimeSelector2 target = obj as DateTimeSelector2;
        DateTime oldValue = (DateTime)args.OldValue;
        DateTime newValue = (DateTime)args.NewValue;
        if (oldValue != newValue)
            target.OnDateChanged(oldValue, newValue);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// 标识 Time 依赖属性。
    /// </summary>
    public static readonly DependencyProperty TimeProperty =
        DependencyProperty.Register("Time", typeof(TimeSpan), typeof(DateTimeSelector2), new PropertyMetadata(TimeSpan.Zero, OnTimeChanged));

    private static void OnTimeChanged(DependencyObject obj, DependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs args)
    {
        DateTimeSelector2 target = obj as DateTimeSelector2;
        TimeSpan oldValue = (TimeSpan)args.OldValue;
        TimeSpan newValue = (TimeSpan)args.NewValue;
        if (oldValue != newValue)
            target.OnTimeChanged(oldValue, newValue);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// 标识 DateTime 依赖属性。
    /// </summary>
    public static readonly DependencyProperty DateTimeProperty =
        DependencyProperty.Register("DateTime", typeof(DateTime), typeof(DateTimeSelector2), new PropertyMetadata(DateTime.Now, OnDateTimeChanged));

    private static void OnDateTimeChanged(DependencyObject obj, DependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs args)
    {
        DateTimeSelector2 target = obj as DateTimeSelector2;
        DateTime oldValue = (DateTime)args.OldValue;
        DateTime newValue = (DateTime)args.NewValue;
        if (oldValue != newValue)
            target.OnDateTimeChanged(oldValue, newValue);
    }

    public DateTimeSelector2()
    {
        this.DefaultStyleKey = typeof(DateTimeSelector2);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// 获取或设置Date的值
    /// </summary>  
    public DateTime Date
    {
        get { return (DateTime)GetValue(DateProperty); }
        set { SetValue(DateProperty, value); }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// 获取或设置Time的值
    /// </summary>  
    public TimeSpan Time
    {
        get { return (TimeSpan)GetValue(TimeProperty); }
        set { SetValue(TimeProperty, value); }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// 获取或设置DateTime的值
    /// </summary>  
    public DateTime DateTime
    {
        get { return (DateTime)GetValue(DateTimeProperty); }
        set { SetValue(DateTimeProperty, value); }
    }

    private bool _isUpdatingDateTime;

    protected virtual void OnDateChanged(DateTime oldValue, DateTime newValue)
    {
        UpdateDateTime();
    }

    protected virtual void OnTimeChanged(TimeSpan oldValue, TimeSpan newValue)
    {
        UpdateDateTime();
    }

    protected virtual void OnDateTimeChanged(DateTime oldValue, DateTime newValue)
    {
        _isUpdatingDateTime = true;
        try
        {
                Date = newValue.Date;
                Time = newValue.TimeOfDay;
        }
        finally
        {
            _isUpdatingDateTime = false;
        }
    }

    private void UpdateDateTime()
    {
        if (_isUpdatingDateTime)
            return;

            DateTime = Date.Date.Add(Time);
    }
}

控件的代码并不清楚ControlTemplate中包含什么控件,它只关心自己的数据。

XAML中通过绑定使用这些数据。

<Style TargetType="local:DateTimeSelector2">
    <Setter Property="Template">
        <Setter.Value>
            <ControlTemplate TargetType="local:DateTimeSelector2">
                <StackPanel Background="{TemplateBinding Background}"
                            BorderBrush="{TemplateBinding BorderBrush}"
                            BorderThickness="{TemplateBinding BorderThickness}">
                    <CalendarDatePicker Margin="0,0,0,5"
                                        Date="{Binding Date,RelativeSource={RelativeSource Mode=TemplatedParent},Mode=TwoWay,Converter={StaticResource DateTimeOffsetConverter}}" />
                    <TimePicker Time="{Binding Time,RelativeSource={RelativeSource Mode=TemplatedParent},Mode=TwoWay}" />
                </StackPanel>
            </ControlTemplate>
        </Setter.Value>
    </Setter>
</Style>


<Style x:Key="DateTimeSelector2CustomStyle"
       TargetType="local:DateTimeSelector2">
    <Setter Property="Template">
        <Setter.Value>
            <ControlTemplate TargetType="local:DateTimeSelector2">
                <StackPanel Background="{TemplateBinding Background}"
                            BorderBrush="{TemplateBinding BorderBrush}"
                            BorderThickness="{TemplateBinding BorderThickness}">
                    <DatePicker Margin="0,0,0,5"
                                Date="{Binding Date,RelativeSource={RelativeSource Mode=TemplatedParent},Mode=TwoWay,Converter={StaticResource DateTimeOffsetConverter}}" />
                    <TimePicker Time="{Binding Time,RelativeSource={RelativeSource Mode=TemplatedParent},Mode=TwoWay}" />
                </StackPanel>
            </ControlTemplate>
        </Setter.Value>
    </Setter>
</Style>

这里给出了两个Style,分别使用了CalendarDatePicker 和DatePicker ,通过TwoWay Binding访问DateTimeSelector2中的Date属性。如果你的TemplatedControl需要有良好的扩展能力,可以尝试使用这种方式。

作者:dino.c