expect安装和使用

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2019-5-16

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  Expect是一个我们常在shell交互时常用到的工具,它主要由expect-send组成。Expect是等待输出内容中的特定字符。然后由send发送特定的相应。Expect的工作流程类似于:小明和小红说:hello,小红发现小明说的是hello,然后就回复小明hi。然后小明说:你好,我是小明。小红发现小明说的是”你好,我是XX“,就回复”你好,我是小红“。

本文主要内容: 1.安装expect    2 expect的一些基本命令选项   3 expect脚本

1.  安装expect

  1.1 yum 安装

  yum安装就比较简单了,直接运行yum install expect就可以了. 

yum  install expect

   1.2 源码安装

  源码安装前我们需要安装unzip和gcc 

yum  install  unzip gcc -y

   源码安装我们需要下载两个源码包。tcl源码包和expect源码包。 

  下载tcl源码包

cd /tmp &&wget  http://core.tcl.tk/tcl/zip/release/tcl.zip

   下载expect源码包

wget https://jaist.dl.sourceforge.net/project/expect/Expect/5.45.3/expect5.45.3.tar.gz

  我们需要先编译安装tcl,因为expect包依赖于tcl。

  解压压缩包并编译安装tcl 

unzip tcl.zip && cd ./tcl/unix
./configure && make && make install

  解压压缩包并编译安装expect.

cd /tmp && tar -xzvf expect5.45.3.tar.gz && cd expect5.45.3/
./configure && make && make install

  检查是否安装好(显示安装好的版本号就是已经安装好了)并创建软链接。

expect -v
[root@localhost shell]# expect -v
expect version 5.45.3
[root@localhost shell]# ln -s /usr/local/bin/expect  /usr/bin/expect

2.expect常用的参数选项

  2.1  使用 -c 选项:在命令行运行expect 脚本。

  示例:

[root@localhost shell]# expect -c 'expect "hi expect" {send "hi shell\n"}'
hi expect
hi shell
[root@localhost shell]# 

  解释下:这个的意思就是当我们输入了”hi expect”后,系统输出”hi shell”表示回应,在”hi shell”后加”\n”是为了让显示更为直观。

  注意一点就是我们在输入完”hi expect”后要按换行键才会出来”hi shell”.

  2.2 使用 -d 选项:显示调试信息。

  示例脚本:

[root@localhost shell]# cat ssh.exp 
#!/usr/bin/expect -d
set timeout 30
spawn ssh-copy-id 192.168.123.218
expect {
"*yes/no" {send "yes\r"; exp_continue}
"password:" {send "123456\r"}
}
expect eof

  当我运行它的时候,显示的信息(主要信息是加粗字体):

expect version 5.45
argv[0] = /usr/bin/expect  argv[1] = -d  argv[2] = ./ssh.exp  
set argc 0
set argv0 "./ssh.exp"
set argv ""
executing commands from command file ./ssh.exp
spawn ssh-copy-id 192.168.123.218
parent: waiting for sync byte
parent: telling child to go ahead
parent: now unsynchronized from child
spawn: returns {130244}

expect: does "" (spawn_id exp6) match glob pattern "*yes/no"? no
"password:"? no
/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: Source of key(s) to be installed: "/root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub"

expect: does "/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: Source of key(s) to be installed: "/root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub"\r\n" (spawn_id exp6) match glob pattern "*yes/no"? no
"password:"? no
The authenticity of host '192.168.123.218 (192.168.123.218)' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:Qh+4R5mpwlU6kK3bf0k53ngm+WpKKnfvL1ZJo+YM3ic.
ECDSA key fingerprint is MD5:d2:76:6d:33:17:e1:51:83:13:aa:10:ce:f7:1f:9f:32.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? 
expect: does "/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: Source of key(s) to be installed: "/root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub"\r\nThe authenticity of host '192.168.123.218 (192.168.123.218)' can't be established.\r\nECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:Qh+4R5mpwlU6kK3bf0k53ngm+WpKKnfvL1ZJo+YM3ic.\r\nECDSA key fingerprint is MD5:d2:76:6d:33:17:e1:51:83:13:aa:10:ce:f7:1f:9f:32.\r\nAre you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? " (spawn_id exp6) match glob pattern "*yes/no"? yes
expect: set expect_out(0,string) "/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: Source of key(s) to be installed: "/root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub"\r\nThe authenticity of host '192.168.123.218 (192.168.123.218)' can't be established.\r\nECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:Qh+4R5mpwlU6kK3bf0k53ngm+WpKKnfvL1ZJo+YM3ic.\r\nECDSA key fingerprint is MD5:d2:76:6d:33:17:e1:51:83:13:aa:10:ce:f7:1f:9f:32.\r\nAre you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no"
expect: set expect_out(spawn_id) "exp6"
expect: set expect_out(buffer) "/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: Source of key(s) to be installed: "/root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub"\r\nThe authenticity of host '192.168.123.218 (192.168.123.218)' can't be established.\r\nECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:Qh+4R5mpwlU6kK3bf0k53ngm+WpKKnfvL1ZJo+YM3ic.\r\nECDSA key fingerprint is MD5:d2:76:6d:33:17:e1:51:83:13:aa:10:ce:f7:1f:9f:32.\r\nAre you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no"
send: sending "yes\r" to { exp6 }
expect: continuing expect

expect: does ")? " (spawn_id exp6) match glob pattern "*yes/no"? no
"password:"? no
yes

expect: does ")? yes\r\n" (spawn_id exp6) match glob pattern "*yes/no"? no
"password:"? no
/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed

expect: does ")? yes\r\n/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed\r\n" (spawn_id exp6) match glob pattern "*yes/no"? no
"password:"? no
/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys

expect: does ")? yes\r\n/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed\r\n/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys\r\n" (spawn_id exp6) match glob pattern "*yes/no"? no
"password:"? no
root@192.168.123.218's password: 
expect: does ")? yes\r\n/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed\r\n/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys\r\nroot@192.168.123.218's password: " (spawn_id exp6) match glob pattern "*yes/no"? no
"password:"? yes
expect: set expect_out(0,string) "password:"
expect: set expect_out(spawn_id) "exp6"
expect: set expect_out(buffer) ")? yes\r\n/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed\r\n/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys\r\nroot@192.168.123.218's password:"
send: sending "123456\r" to { exp6 }
Number of key(s) added: 1
Now try logging into the machine, with:   "ssh '192.168.123.218'"
and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added.
expect: read eof
expect: set expect_out(spawn_id) "exp6"
expect: set expect_out(buffer) " \r\n\r\nNumber of key(s) added: 1\r\n\r\nNow try logging into the machine, with:   "ssh '192.168.123.218'"\r\nand check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added.\r\n\r\n"

 还有一些其他参数,但是我觉得对于我用处不大,所以没有在此记录。

3.expect脚本示例

  简单在这记录下下面会用到的一些命令

  set timeout           #设置超时时间,默认超时时间10s.

  spawn shell command   # spawn后面接的是我们要执行的shell命令

  expect “hi”        #匹配输出内容“hi”

  {send “hello\r”}                    # 匹配到内容”hi”后输出“hello”,“\r”是代表是返回字符。

  interact             #执行完成后保持交互状态,把控制权交给控制台,这个时候就可以手工操作了。如果没有这一句登录完成后会退出,而不是留在远程终端上。如果你只是登录过去执行一段命令就退出,可改为[expect eof] 

  3.1 简单更改密码脚本

[root@localhost shell]# cat password.exp
#!/usr/bin/expect -d                  #"#!/usr/bin/expect"这一行告诉操作系统脚本里的代码使用那一个shell来执行。 -d 启用调试模式(可加可不加)。
set timeout 30              #设置超时时间为30s spawn passwd user5            #spawn是进入expect环境后才可以执行的expect内部命令,如果没有装expect或者直接在默认的SHELL下执行是找不到spawn命令的。所以不要用 “which spawn“之类的命令去找spawn命令。好比windows里的dir就是一个内部命令,这个命令由shell自带,你无法找到一个dir.com 或 dir.exe 的可执行文件。它主要的功能是给ssh运行进程加个壳,用来传递交互指令。 expect "New password:" {send "123456\r" } #这个命令的意思是判断上次输出结果里是否包含“New password:”的字符串,如果有则立即返回"123456","\r"代表是返回字符,否则就等待一段时间后返回,这里等待时长就是前面设置的30秒 。 expect "new password:" {send "123456\r"} #在平常我们设置密码的时候会让我输入一次后再输入一次进行确认,这个是匹配第二次输出,然后再次输入密码。 expect eof                #表示读取到文件结束符

  3.2登陆远程服务器并停留在远程服务器上

[root@localhost shell]# cat login.exp 
#!/usr/bin/expect
spawn ssh 192.168.123.218   #ssh 远程登陆
expect {
"*yes/no" {send "yes\r";exp_continue} #匹配输出内容,返回内容,exp_continue表示继续执行下一步
"*password" {send "123456\r"}
}
interact #执行完成后保持交互状态,把控制权交给控制台,这个时候就可以手工操作了。如果没有这一句登录完成后会退出,而不是留在远程终端上。如果你只是登录过去执行一段命令就退出,可改为[expect eof]

  3.3传输参数执行登陆 

[root@localhost shell]# cat  login2.exp 
#!/usr/bin/expect 
set ip [lindex $argv 0]  #这条命令是将变量ip的值设置为传入进来的第一个参数。[lindex $argv 0]表示的就是第一个参数的值
set port [lindex $argv 1] #这条命令是将变量port的值设置为传入进来的第二个参数。[lindex $argv 1]表示的就是第二个参数的值
set passwd "123456"
spawn ssh $ip -p$port  #使用变量,这里使用的方法跟shell脚本一样
expect {
    "yes/no" {send "yes\r";exp_continue}
    "password:" {send "$passwd\r"}
}
interact
[root@localhost shell]# ./login2.exp  192.168.123.218 22 #多个参数直接以空格间隔,第一个参数:192.168.123.218 第二个参数22

   3.4在shell脚本中使用expect

    3.4.1通过添加expect脚本文件(建议这种)   

      实现的功能:输入ip(也就是我们传入的参数),并登陆到这个ip,并保持交互状态(interact)

      login.sh脚本内容(shell)

[root@localhost shell]# cat login.sh 
#!/bin/bash
read -p "please input you ip:" -t30 remote_ip  #获取登陆ip内容
echo "$remote_ip"
./login.exp $remote_ip  #运行expect脚本 传入参数

       login.exp脚本内容(expect)

[root@localhost shell]# cat login.exp 
#!/usr/bin/expect
set ip [lindex $argv 0]  #将参数值传递给变量ip
spawn ssh $ip      #登陆ip
expect {
"*yes/no" {send "yes\r";exp_continue} #匹配登陆信息,返回'yes'
"*password" {send "123456\r"} #匹配输出信息,返回密码
}
interact #登陆成功后保持交互状态,把控制权交给控制台

    3.4.2在shell脚本直接写入expect命令

#!/bin/bash
read -p "please input you ip:" -t30 remote_ip  #获取登陆ip内容
echo "$remote_ip"
expect -d <<EOF
spawn ssh $remote_ip
expect {
"*yes/no" {send "yes\r";exp_continue}
"*password:" {send "Xuansiwei123!\r"}
}
exit
expect eof;
EOF

    3.4.3 expect匹配不同情况(有密钥文件则退出,没有则添加)  

sshkey.exp

#!/usr/bin/expect -d 
spawn ssh-keygen
expect {
".ssh/id_rsa" {send "\r";exp_continue}
"Overwrite (y/n)?" exit    #判断是否已经有密钥文件,有则退出,没有就进行添加。
"Enter passphrase" {send "\r";exp_continue}
"Enter same passphrase again:" {send "\r"}
}
expect eof

  3.5批量分发公钥到远程主机

  批量分发我主要有三个文件,第一个是ip.txt(用来储存ip和密码的,ip和密码直接以”:”间隔,示例:192.168.123.12:123456),第二个文件是add.sh(包含读取ip.txt和批量添加的脚本),第三个文件是 ssh_copy.exp(用来处理交互的脚本)

  ip.txt文件内容

#ip    password
192.168.123.110:123456
192.168.123.111:123@456!

  这里注意下我第二行的ip的密码的最后一位是“!”,它在我shell脚本中的取出密码步骤也给我造成了一点麻烦,直接echo “$i”是报错的,我后面换成了echo “${i}”,这样就不会报错了。

  add.sh(shell脚本)

#!/bin/bash
IP_file='/root/shell/ip.txt'
if [ -e  "$IP_file" ]          #检查ip.txt文件是否存在,
then
    echo -e "\033[1;32;40m IP file is exist \033[0m" 
else 
    echo -e "\033[1;31;40m IP file is not exist \033[0m"
    exit 2
fi
for i in $(cat ${IP_file})
do 
    IP=$(echo "${i}" |awk -F":" '{print $1}')  #将ip.txt每行的ip值获取
    PW=$(echo "${i}" |awk -F":" '{print $2}')#将ip.txt每行的ip值获取
  ./ssh_copy.exp $IP $PW 
  if [ $? -eq 0 ] #判断expect脚本是否执行成功
  then
    echo "$IP add is ok "
  else
    echo "$IP add faile"
  fi
done

  在上面的shell脚本我们还可以再加一个验证是否添加成功了,通过验证是否可以直接ssh登录来判断是否添加成功。

  ssh_copy.exp(expect脚本)

#!/usr/bin/expect #调试的时候可以加个-d参数,便于查看我们的哪里步骤出现了错误。
set IP [lindex $argv 0 ]
set PW [lindex $argv 1 ]
spawn ssh-copy-id $IP
expect {
    "yes/no" {send "yes\r";exp_continue}
    "password:" {send "$PW\r"}
}
expect eof

ssh和ssh-copy-id以及批量多机无密码登陆详解

这篇文章参考以下大佬的文章。

https://www.cnblogs.com/lixigang/articles/4849527.html

https://segmentfault.com/a/1190000002564816

作者:自由早晚乱余生