Linux sudo

服务器

浏览数:130

2019-5-9

AD:资源代下载服务

介绍

本篇文章主要介绍sudo配置和用法,为了给某个用户控制权限比如执行某个命令或者关机操作等,服务器管理员通常会给这个用户配置sudo,接下来就来详细介绍具体的配置方法。

环境:centos6.7

结构说明

可以通过编辑文件/etc/sudoers来配置,通常使用visudo命令来进行修改,visudo 后面不需要跟文件名,因为如果你修改的格式不符合它会进行提示。接下来就通过一个格式来了解它

<user> <host> = [<operator user> [<par>]] <command list>
chenmh localhost = (root)    NOPASSWD: /bin/mkdir test

<user>:指的是具体的用户或者用户别名,如果使用%user指的是用户组。

<host>:指的是具体的host(可以是机器名也可以是ip)或者是host别名,ALL代表所有的host。

<operator user>:可选,指定可以用调用哪个用户的来执行,ALL代表调用root用户来执行。这里要说明一下root用户的权限代表什么意思,比如一个目录的所有者是root,那么必须具备root用户的权限才能执行相关操作,比如上面的chenmh用户如果它配置的是其它用户比如它自己,那么它在root所有者的目录下面是没权限执行操作的。同样如果这里配置的是哪个用户那么比如mkdir创建的文件夹就的所有者就是哪个用户。默认不指定代表使用ALL

<par>:可选,指定参数,通常使用NOPASSWD(代表该用户在执行sudo的时候不需要再输入自己的密码)。

<command list>:指定的具体命令或者是命令别名或者是ALL,ALL代表所有权限。

说明: [<operator user> [<par>]]这两个选项是可以选的可以不指定,如果不指定默认是调用root用户执行,但是使用sudo必须输入用户自己的密码

配置文件

接下来详细来看看它的配置文件,它的配置文件以及很详细的告诉了我们该怎样使用,在前面一部分是示例怎样将一组权限创建组别名,注意别名需要大写,

## Sudoers allows particular users to run various commands as
## the root user, without needing the root password.
##
## Examples are provided at the bottom of the file for collections
## of related commands, which can then be delegated out to particular
## users or groups.
## 
## This file must be edited with the 'visudo' command.

##可以将多个host配置成一个host别名 ## Host Aliases ## Groups of machines. You may prefer to use hostnames (perhaps using ## wildcards for entire domains) or IP addresses instead. Host_Alias FILESERVERS = 192.168.137.40,192.168.137.30 # Host_Alias MAILSERVERS = smtp, smtp2
##将多个user配置成一个user别名 ## User Aliases ## These aren't often necessary, as you can use regular groups ## (ie, from files, LDAP, NIS, etc) in this file - just use %groupname ## rather than USERALIAS User_Alias ADMINS = chenmh ###接下来是命令别名,就是将一组命令放在一起,这样可以简便配置 ## Command Aliases ## These are groups of related commands... ## Networking # Cmnd_Alias NETWORKING = /sbin/route, /sbin/ifconfig, /bin/ping, /sbin/dhclient, /usr/bin/net, /sbin/iptables, /usr/bin/rfcomm, /usr/bin/wvdial, /sbin/iwconfig, /sbin/mii-tool ## Installation and management of software # Cmnd_Alias SOFTWARE = /bin/rpm, /usr/bin/up2date, /usr/bin/yum ## Services # Cmnd_Alias SERVICES = /sbin/service, /sbin/chkconfig ## Updating the locate database # Cmnd_Alias LOCATE = /usr/bin/updatedb ## Storage # Cmnd_Alias STORAGE = /sbin/fdisk, /sbin/sfdisk, /sbin/parted, /sbin/partprobe, /bin/mount, /bin/umount ## Delegating permissions # Cmnd_Alias DELEGATING = /usr/sbin/visudo, /bin/chown, /bin/chmod, /bin/chgrp ## Processes # Cmnd_Alias PROCESSES = /bin/nice, /bin/kill, /usr/bin/kill, /usr/bin/killall ## Drivers # Cmnd_Alias DRIVERS = /sbin/modprobe
###这个是我自己配置的命令别名,将mkdir命令配置在一起分配给某个用户 ##userdefin Cmnd_Alias USERDEF = /bin/mkdir # Defaults specification # # Disable "ssh hostname sudo <cmd>", because it will show the password in clear. # You have to run "ssh -t hostname sudo <cmd>". # Defaults requiretty # # Refuse to run if unable to disable echo on the tty. This setting should also be # changed in order to be able to use sudo without a tty. See requiretty above. # Defaults !visiblepw # # Preserving HOME has security implications since many programs # use it when searching for configuration files. Note that HOME # is already set when the the env_reset option is enabled, so # this option is only effective for configurations where either # env_reset is disabled or HOME is present in the env_keep list. # Defaults always_set_home Defaults env_reset Defaults env_keep = "COLORS DISPLAY HOSTNAME HISTSIZE INPUTRC KDEDIR LS_COLORS" Defaults env_keep += "MAIL PS1 PS2 QTDIR USERNAME LANG LC_ADDRESS LC_CTYPE" Defaults env_keep += "LC_COLLATE LC_IDENTIFICATION LC_MEASUREMENT LC_MESSAGES" Defaults env_keep += "LC_MONETARY LC_NAME LC_NUMERIC LC_PAPER LC_TELEPHONE" Defaults env_keep += "LC_TIME LC_ALL LANGUAGE LINGUAS _XKB_CHARSET XAUTHORITY" # # Adding HOME to env_keep may enable a user to run unrestricted # commands via sudo. # # Defaults env_keep += "HOME" Defaults secure_path = /sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin ## Next comes the main part: which users can run what software on ## which machines (the sudoers file can be shared between multiple ## systems). ## Syntax: ## ## user MACHINE=COMMANDS ## ## The COMMANDS section may have other options added to it. ## ## Allow root to run any commands anywhere root ALL=(ALL) ALL ## Allows members of the 'sys' group to run networking, software, ## service management apps and more. # %sys ALL = NETWORKING, SOFTWARE, SERVICES, STORAGE, DELEGATING, PROCESSES, LOCATE, DRIVERS ###sys这个组中的用户可以执行相关的命令组的权限,多个命令组用逗号分隔 ## Allows people in group wheel to run all commands # %wheel ALL=(ALL) ALL ## Same thing without a password # %wheel ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL ## Allows members of the users group to mount and unmount the ## cdrom as root # %users ALL=/sbin/mount /mnt/cdrom, /sbin/umount /mnt/cdrom ###users组的用户可以执行挂载和卸载/mnt/cdrom目录的权限 ## Allows members of the users group to shutdown this system # %users localhost=/sbin/shutdown -h now ###users组的用户可以执行关机命令 ## Read drop-in files from /etc/sudoers.d (the # here does not mean a comment) #includedir /etc/sudoers.d

案例

1.用户别名组中的用户可以在FILESERVERS这组host里面调用root用户执行OTHERS命令组的权限,多个命令组用逗号分隔

ADMINS  FILESERVERS=(ALL)    NOPASSWD:OTHERS

2.用户chenmh这个用户可以在本机以调用root用户来执行所有的命令

chenmh localhost=(root) NOPASSWORD:ALL

3.用户chenmh可以调用root用户创建目录test,也只能创建test目录

chenmh ALL=(ALL)    NOPASSWD: /bin/mkdir test

4.dev组的用户可以执行关机shutdown命令

%dev ALL=(ALL)    NOPASSWD:/sbin/shutdown

备注:一般的用户只需要授予以下权限即可:

test ALL=(ALL)       NOPASSWD:NETWORKING, SOFTWARE, SERVICES, PROCESSES, USERDEF

快捷操作 

 1.查看当前用户具备的sudo权限

sudo -l
User chenmh may run the following commands on this host:
    (root) NOPASSWD: /bin/mkdir, /bin/rm

总结

配置sudo记得使用visudo命令,如果配置错误了保存的时候它会有提示。 一般用户只需要拥有个别文件夹的所有权限,root用户只需要授予用户指定文件夹的所有权限即可。对用户授予chown权限要特别注意,一旦用户拥有chown权限用户就可以将文件或者文件夹的所有者置为自己,一旦用户拥有了某个文件或者文件夹的所有权限,那么也就可以删除该文件或者文件夹。

备注:

    作者:pursuer.chen

    博客:http://www.cnblogs.com/chenmh

本站点所有随笔都是原创,欢迎大家转载;但转载时必须注明文章来源,且在文章开头明显处给明链接。

《欢迎交流讨论》

作者:pursuer.chen