[Linux/C++] 多线程实例:十字路口车辆调度

c/c++

浏览数:285

2019-3-29

实例要求:

有两条道路双向两个车道,即每条路每个方向只有一个车道,两条道路十字交叉。假设车辆只能向前直行,而不允许转弯和后退。如果有4辆车几乎同时到达这个十字路口,如图(a)所示;相互交叉地停下来,如图(b),此时4辆车都将不能继续向前,这是一个典型的死锁问题。从操作系统原理的资源分配观点,如果4辆车都想驶过十字路口,那么对资源的要求如下:

  • 向北行驶的车1需要象限a和b;

  • 向西行驶的车2需要象限b和c;

  • 向南行驶的车3需要象限c和d;

  • 向东行驶的车4需要象限d和a。

我们要实现十字路口交通的车辆同步问题,防止汽车在经过十字路口时产生死锁和饥饿。在我们的系统中,东西南北各个方向不断地有车辆经过十字路口(注意:不只有4辆),同一个方向的车辆依次排队通过十字路口。按照交通规则是右边车辆优先通行,如图(a)中,若只有car1、car2、car3,那么车辆通过十字路口的顺序是car3->car2->car1。车辆通行总的规则:
1)来自同一个方向多个车辆到达十字路口时,车辆靠右行驶,依次顺序通过;
2)有多个方向的车辆同时到达十字路口时,按照右边车辆优先通行规则,除非该车在十字路口等待时收到一个立即通行的信号;
3)避免产生死锁;
4)避免产生饥饿;
5)任何一个线程(车辆)不得采用单点调度策略;
6)由于使用AND型信号量机制会使线程(车辆)并发度降低且引起不公平(部分线程饥饿),本题不得使用AND型信号量机制,即在上图中车辆不能要求同时满足两个象限才能顺利通过,如南方车辆不能同时判断a和b是否有空。

我的解决方案(可能存在一些不足,希望大家指出):

/**
 *方法:使用四种线程代表四个方向的车,通过互斥锁和信号量实现题目里的要求。
 */
#include "../lib/myhead.h"
#include <pthread.h>
#include <queue>

#define SLEEP_MS(ms) usleep((ms)*1000) 

using std::queue;
enum Direction{
    NORTH = 1,
    EAST = 2,
    SOUTH = 3,
    WEST = 4
};

/* generate mutex and cond that are required */
template<typename T> struct NormalMutex{
    T val; //store some value that you can use
    bool flag; //control wether using cond
    pthread_mutex_t mutex;
    pthread_cond_t cond;
    NormalMutex():flag(false){
        int err = pthread_mutex_init(&mutex,nullptr);
        if(err!=0) 
            err_exit(err,"mutex init failed");
    }
    /* if you need cond, please set flag true */
    NormalMutex(bool flag):NormalMutex(){
        this->flag = flag;
        if(flag){
            int err = pthread_cond_init(&cond,nullptr);
            if(err!=0)
                err_exit(err,"cond init failed");
        }
    }
    ~NormalMutex(){
        pthread_mutex_destroy(&mutex);
        if(flag)
            pthread_cond_destroy(&cond);
    }
};

/* define the struct containing mutex and cond */
NormalMutex< queue<int> > q_north(true), q_south(true), q_west(true), q_east(true);
NormalMutex<bool> f_north(true), f_south(true), f_west(true), f_east(true);
NormalMutex<int> r_a, r_b, r_c, r_d;

/* define the integer to store the current car in four direction */
NormalMutex<long long> cur_n, cur_s, cur_e, cur_w;

/* define bool to make sure wether a direction has car */
NormalMutex<bool> isin_n, isin_s, isin_e, isin_w;

/* mark the remaining road*/
NormalMutex<int> resource;

/* mark the end of deadlock*/
NormalMutex<bool> dl_over(true);

/* signal four of few val to go firstly */
void init_car(){
    if(q_north.val.size()>0){ //if there are val waiting in the queue, pop one and let it go
        cur_n.val = q_north.val.front(); //pop
        q_north.val.pop();
        pthread_cond_broadcast(&q_north.cond); //let it go
    }
    if(q_south.val.size()>0){
        cur_s.val = q_south.val.front();
        q_south.val.pop();
        pthread_cond_broadcast(&q_south.cond);
    }
    if(q_west.val.size()>0){
        cur_w.val = q_west.val.front();
        q_west.val.pop();
        pthread_cond_broadcast(&q_west.cond);
    }
    if(q_east.val.size()>0){
        cur_e.val = q_east.val.front();
        q_east.val.pop();
        pthread_cond_broadcast(&q_east.cond);
    }
}

int enterTheCrossing(Direction dir,const long long &car_no){
    NormalMutex<int> *road;
    NormalMutex<bool> *isin;
    string direction;
    switch(dir){
        case NORTH:
            road = &r_c; isin = &isin_n; direction = "North"; break;
        case EAST:
            road = &r_b; isin = &isin_e; direction = "East"; break;
        case SOUTH:
              road = &r_a; isin = &isin_s; direction = "South"; break;
        case WEST:
            road = &r_d; isin = &isin_w; direction = "West"; break;
    }
    /* enter the crossing */
    pthread_mutex_lock(&(road->mutex));
    printf("car %lld from %s arrives at crossing\n",car_no,direction.c_str());

    /* things to do after lock the first road */
    isin->val = true; //mark that there is car in north direction
    pthread_mutex_lock(&resource.mutex);
    int tem_re = --resource.val; //let the resource minus one
    pthread_mutex_unlock(&resource.mutex); 

    return tem_re;
}
void detectDeadlock(Direction dir,int tem_re){
    if(tem_re!=0) return ;
    string direction;
    NormalMutex<int> *road;
    NormalMutex<bool> *first, *isin;
    switch(dir){
        case NORTH:
            direction = "East";  road = &r_c;isin = &isin_n; first = &f_east; break;
        case EAST:
            direction = "South"; road = &r_b;isin = &isin_e; first = &f_south; break;
        case SOUTH:
            direction = "West"; road = &r_a;isin = &isin_s; first = &f_west; break;
        case WEST:
            direction = "North"; road = &r_d;isin = &isin_w first = &f_north; break;
    }
    printf("DEADLOCK car jam detected. signal %s to go\n",direction.c_str());
    dl_over.val = false;
    /* deal with the deadlock by making left car go */
    pthread_mutex_unlock(&(road->mutex)); //release the road 
    isin->val = false; //let left car go first
    pthread_cond_signal(&(first->cond));// send the signal to left car

    /* wait the end of deadlock */
    pthread_mutex_lock(&dl_over.mutex);
    while(dl_over.val==false)
        pthread_cond_wait(&dl_over.cond,&dl_over.mutex);
    pthread_mutex_unlock(&dl_over.mutex);

    /* recover from deadlock */   
    pthread_mutex_lock(&(road->mutex)); 
    isin->val = true;
}

void judgeRight(Direction dir){
    NormalMutex<bool> *isin;
    NormalMutex<bool> *first;
    switch(dir){
        case NORTH:
            isin = &isin_w; first = &f_north; break;
        case EAST:
            isin = &isin_n; first = &f_east; break;
        case SOUTH:
            isin = &isin_e; first = &f_south; break;
        case WEST: 
            isin = &isin_s; first = &f_west; break;
    }
    /* juage that if car can go first */
    pthread_mutex_lock(&(first->mutex));
    while(isin->val)
        pthread_cond_wait(&(first->cond),&(first->mutex));
    pthread_mutex_unlock(&(first->mutex));
}

void gotoNextRoad(Direction dir,const long long & car_no){
    string direction;
    NormalMutex<int> *r1,*r2;
    NormalMutex<bool> *isin,*lisin,*first;
    switch(dir){
        case NORTH:
            r1 = &r_c; r2 = &r_d; isin = &isin_n;lisin = &isin_e; first = &f_east; direction = "North";      
            break; 
        case EAST:
            r1 = &r_b; r2 = &r_c; isin = &isin_e;lisin = &isin_s; first = &f_south; direction = "East";
            break;
        case SOUTH:
            r1 = &r_a; r2 = &r_b; isin = &isin_s;lisin = &isin_w; first = &f_west; direction = "South";
            break;
        case WEST:
            r1 = &r_d; r2 = &r_a; isin = &isin_w;lisin = &isin_n; first = &f_north; direction = "West";
            break;
    }
    /* go to next road */
    pthread_mutex_lock(&(r2->mutex));
    /* unlock the first road */    
    pthread_mutex_unlock(&(r1->mutex));
    printf("car %lld from %s leaving crossing\n",car_no,direction.c_str());
    
    /* things to do after unlocking the first road */    
    pthread_mutex_lock(&resource.mutex);
    resource.val++; //resource plus one
    pthread_mutex_unlock(&resource.mutex);
   
       /* out of the deadlock */
    dl_over.val = true;
    pthread_cond_signal(&dl_over.cond);

    /* unlock the second road */
    pthread_mutex_unlock(&(r2->mutex));
   
    isin->val = false; //the road don't have car
    /* if left direction has waiting car,let it go first*/
    pthread_mutex_lock(&(first->mutex));
    first->val = true; //let left car go first, if exist
    pthread_mutex_unlock(&(first->mutex));
    pthread_cond_signal(&first->cond); //send signal to left car
}
void doAfterGo(Direction dir){
    NormalMutex<queue<int> > *qu;
    NormalMutex<long long> *cur;
    switch(dir){
        case NORTH:
            qu = &q_north; cur = &cur_n; break;
        case EAST:
            qu = &q_east; cur = &cur_e; break;
        case SOUTH:
            qu = &q_south; cur = &cur_s; break;
        case WEST:
            qu = &q_west;  cur = &cur_w; break;
    }

    /* let the next car in the same direction to go */
    pthread_mutex_lock(&(qu->mutex));
    pthread_mutex_lock(&(cur->mutex)); 
    cur->val = qu->val.front(); //set next car to go
    qu->val.pop(); //leave the queue
    pthread_mutex_unlock(&(qu->mutex));
    pthread_mutex_unlock(&(cur->mutex));
    pthread_cond_broadcast(&(qu->cond));     
}

void * n_car(void *arg){
    /* get the car_no from arg*/
    long long car_no = reinterpret_cast<long long>(arg);

    /* block and wait the signal from init_car() or val over it */
    pthread_mutex_lock(&q_north.mutex); 
    while(cur_n.val != car_no){
        pthread_cond_wait(&q_north.cond,&q_north.mutex);
    }
    pthread_mutex_unlock(&q_north.mutex);

    int tem_re = enterTheCrossing(NORTH,car_no);
    detectDeadlock(NORTH,tem_re);
    judgeRight(NORTH);
    gotoNextRoad(NORTH,car_no);
    doAfterGo(NORTH);
    return nullptr;
}
/* the thread representing the car coming from east */
void * e_car(void *arg){
    /* get the car_no from arg*/
    long long car_no = reinterpret_cast<long long>(arg);

    pthread_mutex_lock(&q_east.mutex);
    while(cur_e.val != car_no){
        pthread_cond_wait(&q_east.cond,&q_east.mutex);
    }
    pthread_mutex_unlock(&q_east.mutex);

    int tem_re = enterTheCrossing(EAST,car_no);
    detectDeadlock(EAST,tem_re);
    judgeRight(EAST);
    gotoNextRoad(EAST,car_no);
    doAfterGo(EAST);
    return nullptr;
}

/* the thread representing the car from south */
void * s_car(void *arg){
    /* get the car_no from arg*/
    long long car_no = reinterpret_cast<long long>(arg);

    pthread_mutex_lock(&q_south.mutex);
    while(cur_s.val != car_no){
        pthread_cond_wait(&q_south.cond,&q_south.mutex);
    }
    pthread_mutex_unlock(&q_south.mutex);

    int tem_re = enterTheCrossing(SOUTH,car_no);
    detectDeadlock(SOUTH,tem_re);
    judgeRight(SOUTH);
    gotoNextRoad(SOUTH,car_no);
    doAfterGo(SOUTH);
    return nullptr;
}

/* the thread representing the car from west */
void * w_car(void *arg){
    /* get the car_no from arg*/
    long long car_no = reinterpret_cast<long long>(arg);

    pthread_mutex_lock(&q_west.mutex);
    while(cur_w.val != car_no){
        pthread_cond_wait(&q_west.cond,&q_west.mutex);
    }
    pthread_mutex_unlock(&q_west.mutex);

    int tem_re = enterTheCrossing(WEST,car_no);
    detectDeadlock(WEST,tem_re);
    judgeRight(WEST);
    gotoNextRoad(WEST,car_no);
    doAfterGo(WEST);
    return nullptr;
}
int main(int argc,char *argv[]){
    
    /* check the argv */
    if(argc!=2){
        cout<<"Please input the car stream."<<endl;
        exit(0);
    }

    /* initialize the variable */
    cur_n.val = cur_s.val = cur_e.val = cur_w.val = 0;
    isin_n.val = isin_s.val = isin_e.val = isin_w.val = false;
    resource.val = 4;
    int err = 0;
    int carNumber = strlen(argv[1]);
    pthread_t tids[carNumber+1];
    
    /* create all cars and push them into queue */
    for(int i=1;i<=carNumber;++i){
        switch(argv[1][i-1]){
            case 'n':
                q_north.val.push(i);
                err = pthread_create(&tids[i],nullptr,n_car,reinterpret_cast<void *>(i));
                if(err!=0)
                    err_exit(err,"can't create thread");
                break;
            case 'w':
                q_west.val.push(i);
                err = pthread_create(&tids[i],nullptr,w_car,reinterpret_cast<void *>(i));
                if(err!=0)
                    err_exit(err,"can't create thread");
                break;
            case 's':
                q_south.val.push(i);
                err = pthread_create(&tids[i],nullptr,s_car,reinterpret_cast<void *>(i));
                if(err!=0)
                    err_exit(err,"can't create thread");
                break;
            case 'e':
                q_east.val.push(i);
                err = pthread_create(&tids[i],nullptr,e_car,reinterpret_cast<void *>(i));
                if(err!=0)
                    err_exit(err,"can't create thread");
                break;
        }
    }
    /* wake up the car in front of queue */
    init_car();

    /* join threads */
    for(int i=1;i<=carNumber;++i){
        err = pthread_join(tids[i],nullptr);
        if(err!=0)
            err_exit(err,"can't join thread %d",i);
    }
    exit(0);
}

代码中使用到的error handler函数:

static void
err_doit(bool, int, const char *, va_list);

void
err_exit(int error, const char *fmt,...){
    va_list ap;
    va_start(ap,fmt);
    err_doit(true,error,fmt,ap);
    va_end(ap);
    exit(1);
}

static void
err_doit(bool errnoflag, int error, const char *fmt, va_list ap){
    char buf[MAXLINE];
    vsnprintf(buf,MAXLINE-1,fmt,ap);
    if(errnoflag)
        snprintf(buf+strlen(buf),MAXLINE-strlen(buf)-1,": %s",strerror(error));
    cerr<<buf<<endl;
}